Analysis of heavy metal content in the dry matter of different energy crops

Edgars Cubars, Liena Poisa, Gotfrids Noviks, Rasma Platace, Skaidrite Bumane


The study shows results of research on heavy metals concentration in biomass of common reed, hemp and Reed canary grass. The research of common reed was performed during winter period from 2010 until 2012 in 11 natural and artificial water bodies of Latvia. For the harvested biomass in the spring of 2009 and 2010, hemp and reed canary grass samples were investigated.

For the collected common reed samples the heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe) was established in the biomass. For the hemp and reed canary grass samples, Cd and Pb content were established in the biomass. On the basis of the findings of this research, the suitability of the plant biomass for energy production was analyzed.

The heavy metal content in the common reed biomass is suitable for the requirements of solid biofuel. Common reed from all the reed beds of the Latgale (region of Latvia) can be collected in one place and used for the production of fuel. The removal of common reed will help to reduce the heavy metal content in the natural waters and sediment of the reed beds.

In the hemp and reed canary grass samples the heavy metals were ascertained periodically. It was found that in some of the research samples they exceeded the MAC for fuel.


Common reed, heavy metals, solid biofuels, reed beds

Full Text:



Brix H. Genetic diversity, ecophysiology and growth dynamics of reed (Phragmites australis). In: Aquatic Botany 64, 1999, pp. 179–184.

Lambertini C., Brix H., Speranza M. Clonal variability of the Common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Studel, in the Po plain. In: Agroindustria Vol.2 (2/3), 2003, pp. 121-126.

Komulainen M., Simi P.,Hagelberg E., Ikonen I., Lyytinen S. Reed energy-Posibilities of using the Cammon Reed for energy generation in Southern Finland. In: Turku university of applied sciences reports 67. 2008, pp. 5-75.

Reed up on Reed Ikkonen I., Roosaluste E., Pitkanen Southwest Finland regional Environment centre, Turku. 2007, pp. 5-115.

Lazaridou M., Spanos Th., Tsiridis A., Kadoglou I. Wastewater and phosphorus effects on the growth of berseem clover. In: Grassland Science in Europe Vol. 11, 2012, pp. 104-106.

Deru J., Van Eekeren N., De Boer H. Rooting density of three grass species and eight Lolium perenne cultivars. In: Grassland Science in Europe, Vol. 17, 2012, pp. 604-606.

Matthews D.J.,Moran B.M. Otte M.L. Zinc tolerance, uptake, and accumulation in the wetland plants eriophorum angustifolium, Juncus effusus, and juncus articulatu. In: Wetlands, vol.24, No.4, 2004, pp. 859-869.

Казмирук В. Д., Казмирук Т. Н. Методы доочистки сточных вод с использованием высшеи водной растительности, 5-я Международная конференция "Сотрудничество для решения проблемы отходов" 2008, c. 2-4, [tiešsaiste] [15.12.2011] Pieejams:

Peruzzi E.,Macci C., Doil Phragmites australis for sewage sludge stabilization. In: Desalination 247, 2009, p. 119.

Adler A., Karacic A., Weih M. Biomass allocation and nutrient use in fast-growing woody and herbaceous perennials used for phytoremediation, In: Plant Soil 305, 2008, pp. 189–206.

Brix H., Arias C.A., Bubba M. Media selection for sustainable phosphorus removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. In:Water Science and Technology Vol 44 No 11 –12, 2001, pp. 47–54.

Sim C.H. The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, ISBN: 983-40960-2-X. 2003, pp. 1-30.

Ye Z.H., Baker A.J.M., Wong M.H., Willis A.J. Zinc, Lead and Cadmium Tolerance, Uptake and Accumulation by the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. In: Annals of Botany 80, 1997, pp. 363-370.

Ali N.A., Bernal M.P., Ater M. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of copper in Phragmites australis and Zea mays, In: Plant and Soil 239, 2002, pp. 103–111.

Grisey E., Laffray X., Contor O. et.all. The Bioaccumulation Performance of Reeds and Cattails in a Constructed Treatment Wetland for Removal of Heavy Metals in Landfill Leachate Treatment (Etueffont, France). In: Water Air Soil Pollut 223, 2012, pp. 1723–1741.

Batty L.C., Baker A.J.M., Wheeler B.D., Curtis C.D. The Efect of pH and Plaque on the Uptake of Cu and Mn in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel. In: Annals of Botany 86, 2000, pp. 647-653.

Oliveira J.S., FemandesJ.A., Alves C., Morais J., Urbano P. Metals in sediment and water of three reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Stend.) stands. In: Hydrobiologia 415, 1999, pp. 41–45.

Terry N, Sambukumar S., LeDuc D. Biotechnological approaches for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids. In: Acta Biotechnol 23, 2003, pp. 281–288.

Raskin I, Kramer U, Smith R.D., Salt D.E., Schulman R. Phytoremediation and mechanisms of metal accumulation in plants. In: Plant Physiol 114, 1997, pp. 1253–1255.

Salt D., Smith R., Raskin I. Phytoremediation. In: Ann Rev Plant Physiol 49, 1998, pp. 643–668.

Lasage E., Rousseau D.P.L., Meers E. Et.all. Accumulation of Metals in the Sediment and Reed Biomass of a Combined Constructed Wetland Treating Domestic Wastewater. In: Water Air Soil Pollut 183, 2007, pp. 253–264.

Adamovičs A., Dubrovskis V., Plūme I., Jansons Ā., Lazdiņa D., Lazdiņš A. Biomasas izmantošanas ilgtspējības kritēriju pieleietošana un pasākumu izstrāde, Valsts SIA Vides projekti, Rīga, 2009, 1.-172. lpp.

Kozlowska M., Jozwiak A., Szpakowska B., Golinski P., Biological aspects of Cadmium and Lead uptake by Phragmites Australis (Cav.Trin Ex staudel) in natural water ecosistems. In: Journal Elementol 14(2), 2009, p.304-310.

Duman F., Cicek M., Sezen G. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis). In: Ecotoxicology 16, 2007, pp. 457–463.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank