IMITATION MODELING OF SOCIAL INVESTMENTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.

Katrīne Kūkoja, Feliciana Rajevska

Abstract


Previous researches show, that social investments in early childhood (until age of 6) are very important, and one of the main types of social investment in this period of time is quality early childhood education and care services (henceforth – ECEC services). Social investments in early childhood have the highest return in human capital, especially for disadvantaged groups of the society. Literature suggests that positive effect of available and qualitative ECEC services can be observed in many areas of life, for example, through improved education indicators, increased participation of the women in the labour market, increased work productivity, higher birth rates, etc. However, the attendance of ECEC services varies considerably between different European Union (henceforth – EU) countries. The aim of this paper is to analyze social investment effect in early childhood in EU countries with high (Denmark), medium (Latvia) and low (Croatia) ECEC service attendance rates, so to find out if and how ECEC service attendance rate in these countries influences such indicators as rate of early leavers from education and training, school graduation rates and female employment rate. To see how situation may change due to the ECEC attendance rate changes in each country analyses was be carried out with imitation model options. This article describes the imitation model, which provides an opportunity to analyze the current situation and compare social investments between different EU countries. The model is designed using ISEE system STELLA MODELING and Imitation Software environment, and it is governed by the criteria that are based on literature studies, as well as analyses of statistic data. An additional benefit is that this model can be adjusted and used to evaluate other countries social investment tendencies as well. Research results show, that not all indicators that have been positively connected with ECEC attendance rate in previous studies have been positively influenced by ECEC attendance rate in chosen case study countries. Analyses showed that only in Croatia positive connections can be observed when it comes to all three indicators. Further studies should be carried out on this topic to get a deeper understanding on ECEC attendance rate effect on these and other indicators, that in the previous studies have been positively linked with ECEC attendance rate.

Keywords


Child development; Early childhood education; Female employment; Social investment

Full Text:

PDF

References


European Commision, “Home page - European Commision,” February 2019. [Online]. Available: https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1044&langId=en [Accessed Jan. 28, 2019]

J. J. Heckman, „Schools, skills, and synapses,” Economic Inquiry, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 289‐324, 2008 [Online] Available: NBER, https://www.nber.org/papers/w14064 [Accessed June 1, 2018], DOI: 10.3386/w14064

R.M. Jacinta and K.S. Jacinta, “Impact of Early Childhood Education on Pupils’ Learning in Primary Schools in Kenya,” Global Journal of Educational Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 52-61, May, 2015 [Online] Available: Macrothink Institute, http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/gjes/article/view/7686 [Accessed Nov. 20, 2018], http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/gjes.v1i1.7686

A. J. Reynolds, J. A. Temple, B. A. White, S. R. Ou and D. L. Robertson, “Age-26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program,” Child Development, vol 82, no. 1, p. 379-404, January-February 2011 [Online]. Available: NCBI, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817956/ [Accessed May 9, 2018], https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01563.x

Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency and Eurydice, “Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities,” Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency and Eurydice, p. 188, 2009 [Online]. Available: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/83f56fb3-62f0-440e-b646-c782f2abef18/language-lv [Accessed: Dec. 20, 2018].

T. Havnes and M. Mogstad, “No Child Left Behind Universal Child Care and Children’s Long-Run Outcomes,” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 97-129, May 2011 [Online]. Available: SSB, https://www.ssb.no/a/publikasjoner/pdf/DP/dp582.pdf [Accessed Dec. 20, 2018], DOI: 10.1257/pol.3.2.97

Janna van Belle, “Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and its long-term effects on educational and labour market outcomes,” Janna van Belle, p.33, 2016. [Online] Available: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1667.html [Accessed: Jan. 12, 2019], https://doi.org/10.7249/RR1667

N. Morel, B. Palier and J. Palme, Towards a Social Investment Welfare State?: Ideas, Policies and Challenges The Policy press, Great Britain, 2012

Editor-in chief F. Rajevska, Turns of Social Policy Transformation in post-crisis years, National research program EKOSOC_LV, project 5.2.6. LU, RSU, ViA, Riga, 2018.

F. Campbell, G. Conti, J.J. Heckman, S.H. Moon, R. Pinto, E. Pungello, Y. Pan , “ Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health,” Science, vol. 343, issue 6178, p. 1478-1485, March 2014 [Online] Available: Science, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6178/1478.long [Accessed Nov 2, 2018], DOI: 10.1126/science.1248429

European Commission,” Early Childhood Education and Care: Providing All Our Children the World of Tomorrow,” European Commission, p.9, 2011.[Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/Lietotajs/Desktop/Downloads/RAND_RR1667.pdf [Accessed: October. 17, 2018].

European Parliament, “Resolution of 12 May 2011 on Early Years Learning in the European Union, 2010/2159/INI,” European Parliament, p. 7, 2011.[Online]. Available: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011IP0231&from=EN [Accessed: October. 17, 2018].

European Commision, “Home page - European Commision,” September 2018. [Online]. Available: https: //ec.europa.eu/ eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Early_childhood _and_primary_education_statistics [Accessed: Jan, 2019]

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia , “Home page - Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia,” December 2018 [online]Available: http://www.csb.gov.lv/en [Accessed: Jan. 15, 2019]

European Commision, “Home page - European Commision,” September 2018. [Online]. Available: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database [Accessed: Jan. 15, 2019]




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2019vol2.4075

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.