Manahil Tongov


The overview includes the basic methods for obtaining surface layers: arc surfacing - submerged arc surfacing (SAS), tungsten inert gas arc surfacing (TIGS), metal gas surfacing (MIG/MAG), plasma surfacing (PS); electron beam surfacing (EBS); laser surfacing (LS); electroless cladding (ELC); friction stir surfacing (FSS). Layers are applied on carbon steels, low alloyed steels, highly alloyed steels, aluminium alloys, titanium alloys or ductile cast iron substrates. The data on the additive materials used are provided and data on the hardness and wear resistance of the layers is given.


surface layers; methods; hardness; wear

Full Text:



H. Wang., S. F. Yu, A. R. Khan and A.G. Huang, .,Effects of vanadium on microstructure and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron hardfacing, layer by electroslag surfacing, (2018) Metals, 8 (6), art. no. 458.

N.A. Kozyrev, R. E. Kryukov, A. A. Umanskii, A.R. Mikhno and L. V. Dumova, Investigation and development of welding fluxes with the use of ladle electric-furnace slag and barium-strontium modifier for rolls surfacing, (2018) Izvestiya Ferrous Metallurgy, 61 (4), pp. 274-279

Y. F. Ivanov, V. E. Kormyshev, V. E. Gromov, S. V. Konovalov, E.V. Martusevich, A. D. Teresov and A. P. Semin, The Increase in Wear Resistance of Low Carbon Steel by Flux-Cored Wire Surfacing Followed Be Electron Beam Processing, (2017) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 253 (1), art. no. 012019

T. Wêgrzyn, J Piwnik, L Wszolek and W. Tarasiuk, Shaft wear after surfacing with microjet cooling, (2015) Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 60 (4), pp. 2625-2630

J. Brezinová, A. Guzanová, P. Maruschak and D. Lorincová, Study of wear processes of weld clads, (2014) Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, 20 (2), pp. 167-176

A.I. Gusev, N.A. Kozyrev, I.V. Osetkovskiy, R.E., Kryukov and O.A. Kozyreva, Quality of Metal Deposited Flux Cored Wire with the System Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co, (2017) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 253 (1), art. no. 012008

A. I. Gusev, N.V. Kibko, N.A. Kozyrev, M.V. Popova and I. V. Osetkovsky, A study on the properties of the deposited metal by flux cored wires 40GMFR and 40H3G2MF, (2016) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 150 (1), art. no. 012033

S. Song, Y. Liu, Q. Ke and Y. Shen,., Overlaying welding technology and performance of axle tube remanufacturing, (2013) Advances in Manufacturing, 1 (2), pp. 143-150.

M. Lomozik and J. Adamiec, Impact of heat treatment on microstructure of steel 30X padded with wire G18 8Mn, (2012) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 35 (1), art. no. 012021

J. Luo, F. Li and X. Wang, Microstructure and mechanical properties of overlaying specimens in GMAW hybrid an additional longitudinal electromagnetic field, (2011) Yosetsu Gakkai Ronbunshu/Quarterly Journal of the Japan Welding Society, 29 (3), pp. 76s-80s

R. Dimitrova R, M. Kandeva and V. Kamburov, Mechanical and tribological characteristics of TIG hardfaced dispersive layer by reinforced with particles extruded aluminium, JournalTribology in Industry, (2017), Vol.39, (1), pp 9-19, .

T. Petrov, P. Tashev and M. Kandeva, Wear resistance of suface layers modified with Al2O3 and TiCN nanopowders weld overlaid using tig and itig methods, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association 2016, SciBulCom Ltd., vol. 22, No 1, №1136, ISSN 1310-4772,

P. Tashev, R. Lazarova, M. Kandeva, R. Petrov and V. Manolov, “Tungsten Inert Gas Weld Overlay using Nano-sized TiN Powder”, JOURNAL OF THE BALKAN TRIBOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 22, No 3, 2238-2254

V. Kamburov, R. Dimitrova and M. Kandeva, Introduction of nickel coated silicon carbide particles in aluminum metal matrix hardfaced by MIG/TIG processes on precoated flux layer. Tribology in Industry 40(1), pp. 73-80

F. Huang, W. Peng, Y. Zhao and Z. Ren,, Push-off test for measuring the bonding property between surfacing layers and steel base metal and its application, (2017) ISIJ International, 57 (4), pp. 723-729.

V. E. Kormyshev, Y.F. Ivanov, V.E. Gromov, S.V. Konovalov and A.D. Teresov, Surface nanohardness of wear resistant surfacing irradiated by electron beam, (2017) Izvestiya Ferrous Metallurgy, 60 (4), pp. 304-309.

R. Bęczkowski and M. Gucwa1, Defects Appearing in the Surfacing Layers of Abrasion Resistant, (2016) Archives of Foundry Engineering, 16 (4), pp. 23-28.

S.V. Konovalov, V.E. Kormyshev, S.A. Nevskii, Y.F. Ivanov and V.E. Gromov, Formation Wear Resistant Coatings on Martensite Steel Hardox 450 by Welding Methods, (2016) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 142 (1),

D.N. Makeev, O.V. Zakharov, A.N. Vinogradov and A.V. Kochetkov, Modification of Surface Layers by Surfacing Intermetallic Coatings with Variable Properties, (2016) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 116 (1), art. no. 012023, .

A.I. Gusev, N.V. Kibko, M.V. Popova, N.A. Kozyrev and I.V. Osetkovskii, Surfacing of details of mining equipment by powder wires of C – Si – Mn – Mo – V – B AND C – Si –Mn – Cr – Mo – V systems, (2017) Izvestiya Ferrous Metallurgy, 60 (4), pp. 318-323

T. Simeonova, M. Tongov and G. Avdeev, Microstructure and properties of NiCrBSiC overlay coatings deposited by plasma scanning process, WIT Transactions on the Built Environment Volume 137, 2014, Pages 553-564 International Conference on High Performance and Optimum Design of Structures and Materials, HPSM/OPTI 2014; Ostend; Belgium; 9 June 2014 through 11 June 2014; Code 105905 , ISSN: 1743-3509, DOI 10.2495/HPSM140511

L. Song, J. Guo, M.A. Xiaolei and J Zhao, Research on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Fe-Based Hardfacing Layer Using Plasma Surfacing Technology, (2018) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 409 (1), art. no. 012028, .

T. Owa and T. Shinoda, TiAl surface coating on titanium by plasma transferred arc surfacing and its oxidation behavior, (2006) Materials Transactions, 47 (2), pp. 247-250.

M. Tajoure and A. Tajouri, Characterization of Carbides Composite Surface Layers Produced By PTA , Conference: 4th International Congress in Advances in Applied Physics and Materials Science (APMAS) Location: Fethiye, TURKEY Date: APR 24-27, 2014, 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS IN ADVANCES IN APPLIED PHYSICS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE (APMAS 2014) Book Series: AIP Conference Proceedings Volume: 1653 Article Number: 020099 Published: 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4914290

E.N. Korosteleva, V.V. Korzhova and M.G. Krinitcyn, Sintering behavior and microstructure of TiC-Me composite powder prepared by SHS, (2017) Metals, 7 (8), art. no. 290

V.E. Gromov, V.E. Kormyshev, A.M. Glezer, S.V. Konovalov, Y.F. Ivanov and A.P. Semin, Microstructure and wear properties of Hardox 450 steel surface modified by Fe-C-Cr-Nb-W powder wire surfacing and electron beam treatment, (2018) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 411 (1), art. no. 012024, .

V.E. Kormyshev, V.E. Gromov, Y.F. Ivanov and S.V. Konovalov, Structure and properties of the wear-resistant facing modified by electron-beam processing, (2017) Uspehi Fiziki Metallov, 18 (2), pp. 111-139.

Yu.F. Ivanov, A.I. Potekaev, E.A. Petrikova, E. A.; et al., Modification of the surface layer of the system coating (TiCuN)/substrate (A7) by an intensive electron beam , Conference: International Scientific Conference on Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials Location: Tomsk, RUSSIA Date: NOV 03-08, 2014, INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON RADIATION-THERMAL EFFECTS AND PROCESSES IN INORGANIC MATERIALS Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering Volume: 81 Article Number: 012009 Published: 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/81/1/012009

P. Tashev, P. Petrov, S. Valkanov, G. Stefanov and E. Balabanova, „Electron Beam Surface Alloying of Low Carbon Steel in Presence of TiN, TiCN Nanopartic“ Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Iss. 14, pp.183-187, (2014) ISSN 1313-8995

J. Ju, Y. Zhou, M. Kang and J. Wang, Optimization of process parameters, microstructure, and properties of laser cladding fe-based alloy on 42CrMo steel roller, (2018) Materials, 11 (10), art. no. 2061, .

M.O. Ogunlana, E.T. Akinlabi, M.F. Erinosho et al., Integrated Experimental Approach for Alloying of Surface Layer Ti6Al4V+B4C Metal Matrix Composites using Laser Treatment ,MATERIALS RESEARCH-IBERO-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MATERIALS Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Article Number: UNSP e20180368 Published: 2019

S.E. Krylova, S.P. Oplesnin and M.I. Goltyapin, Influence of gas-powder laser cladding's technological parameters on structural characteristics of corrosion-resistant steels' restored surface layer , Conference: 11th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Automation and Control Systems (MEACS) Location: Tomsk, RUSSIA Date: DEC 04-06, 2017 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS 2017 Book Series: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering Volume: 327 Article Number: UNSP 042058 Published: 2018

D. Janicki, Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behaviour of In-Situ TiC-Reinforced Composite Surface Layers Fabricated on Ductile Cast Iron by Laser Alloying , MATERIALS Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Article Number: 75 Published: JAN 2018

A. Lisiecki, Mechanisms of hardness increase for composite surface layers during laser gas nitriding of the Ti6A14V alloy, MATERIALI IN TEHNOLOGIJE Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 577-583 Published: JUL-AUG 2017 DOI: 10.17222/mit.2016.106

T. Yamaguchi, H. Hagino, Y. Michiyama, et al., Sliding Wear Properties of Ti/TiC Surface Composite Layer Formed by Laser Alloying , MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS Volume: 56 Issue: 3 Pages: 361-366 Published: 2015, DOI: 10.2320/matertrans.M2014330

T. Yamaguchi, H. Hagino, M. Takemura, et al., Microstructure of MC-Fe Composite Layer on Carbon Steel by Laser Surface Alloying , JOURNAL OF LASER MICRO NANOENGINEERING Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 83-87 Published: JUN 2014, DOI: 10.2961/jlmn.2014.02.0001

T. Yamaguchi, H. Hagino, M. Takemura, et al., Microstructure of Fe-TiC Composite Surface Layer on Carbon Steel Formed by Laser Alloying Process , MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS Volume: 54 Issue: 9 Pages: 1755-1759 Published: 2013, DOI: 10.2320/matertrans.MAW201304

S. Zherebtsov, K. Maekawa, T. Hayashi, et al., Laser surface alloying of SUS316 stainless steel with Al-Si - (Effect of substrate temperature on structure and properties of modified layer), Conference: JSME/ASME International Conference on Materials and Processing Location: Seattle, WA Date: JUN 19-22, 2005 ,Sponsor(s): JSME; ASME , JSME INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL SERIES A-SOLID MECHANICS AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 292-298 Published: OCT 2005, DOI: 10.1299/jsmea.48.292

K. Uenishi and KF. Kobayashi, Formation of surface layer based on Al3Ti on aluminum by laser cladding and its compatibility with ceramics , INTERMETALLICS Volume: 7 Issue: 5 Pages: 553-559 Published: MAY 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0966-9795(98)00071-5

J.A. Kaleicheva and Z.K. Karaguiozova, Electroless composite nickel coatings strengthening with TiN nanoparticles plated on ductile cast iron, Materials Science Forum 919, pp. 52-58

J. Kaleicheva and Z. Karaguiozova, Improvement of the Wear Resistance of Ferrous Alloys by Electroless Plating of Nickel, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 295(1), 012036

Z. Karaguiozova, J. Kaleicheva, V. Mishev and G. Nikolcheva, Enhancement in the tribological and mechanical properties of electroless Nickel-nanodiamond coatings plated on iron. Tribology in Industry, vol. 39, No 4, pp. 444-451, 2017, ISSN: 0354-8996

J.C.Galvis, P.H.F. Oliveira, J. De Paula Martins, J. and A.L.M. De Carvalho, Assessment of process parameters by friction surfacing on the double layer deposition, (2018) Materials Research, 21 (3), art. no. 20180051

R. Srinivasu, A. Sambasiva Rao, G. Madhusudhan Reddy and K. Srinivasa Rao, Friction stir surfacing of cast A356 aluminium–silicon alloy with boron carbide and molybdenum disulphide powders, (2015) Defence Technology, 11 (2), pp. 140-146.

E. Mahmoud, M. Takahashi, T. Shibayanagi, et al., Fabrication of Surface-Hybrid-MMCs Layer on Aluminum Plate by Friction Stir Processing and Its Wear Characteristics , MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS Volume: 50 Issue: 7 Special Issue: SI Pages: 1824-1831 Published: JUL 2009, DOI: 10.2320/matertrans.M2009092

Dema Ba, Fanjun Meng and Xiaoting Liu, Friction and wear behaviors of surface nanocrystalline layer prepared on medium manganese surfacing layer under oil lubrication, Tribology International 80 (2014) p. 210–215

S. Hanke, A.Fischer and J.F.dos Santos, Sliding wea rbehaviour of a Cr-base alloy after microstructure alterations induced by friction surfacing, Wear 338-339 (2015) 332–338,



  • There are currently no refbacks.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank