Paste Fills Technology in Condition of Estonian Oil Shale Mine

Juri Rivaldo Pastarus, Julija Shommet, Ingo Valgma, Vivika Väizene, Veiko Karu


Oil shale mining and processing industry in Estonia produce a wide assortment of waste could be considered as available fill materials. Waste rock which is not usable in civil engineering and road building may be used for backfilling underground mines. Paste fills technology, which has several benefits, requires careful selection of oil shale waste rock aggregates and other carbonate stones. The laboratory tests and theoretical investigations were made for determination the applicability of limestone and dolostone aggregates as backfill material. It enables to determine the feasible parameters of aggregates from oil shale mining waste rock. Analysis showed that limestone aggregates of Estonian oil shale mines suit best for backfill technology in conditions.


oil shale industry; backfill technology; paste fill; fill materials; limestone and dolostone aggregate; geometrical parameters of aggregates

Full Text:



C W. Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology. Third Edition. New York, 1994, Torino.

H. Koppelmaa, J. Kivisilla, Geological map of the crystalline basement of North-Eastern Estonia, scale 1:200 000. Explanation to the map. 1997, Geol. Survey of Estonia. 37 pp.

R. Kuusik, M. Uibu, K. Kirsimäe, Characterization of oil shale formed at industrial-seal CFBC boilers. Oil Shale, 2005, Vol. 22, No. 4 Special, pp. 407-419.

J. Palarski, Selection of a fill system for longwall in coal mines. 8th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill. Minefill 04, Beijing, September 2004, pp. 82-96.

J. Palarski, Polish experience: Best practices in Poland - underground waste utilization. EU legislation as it affects mining. Infra 22944 TAIEX, Workshop, 30th November - 2nd December 2006, Tallinn, pp. 75-85.

J.-R. Pastarus, Improved underground mining design method for Estonian oil shale deposit. 5-th International Scientific and Practical Conference on Environment, Technology and Resources. Latvia, Rezekne, June 16-18, 2005, pp. 270-274.

J.-R. Pastarus, Sabanov, S. Backfilling in Estonian oil shale mines. In: Proceedings of teh 3rd International Conference AMIREG 2009: Towards sustainable development: Assessing the footprint of resource utilization and hazardous waste management, Athenes, Greece, 2009. (Eds.) Z. Agioutantis, K. Komnitsas. Athens, Greece: 2009, 344 - 347.

J.-R. Pastarus, M. Lohk, Waste management in Estonian oil shale industry. In: Sustainable Developement in the Mineral Industry: Aachen International Mining Sumposia, Fifth International Conference , RWTH Aachen University, 14 – 17 June 2011. (Ed.) P. HN. Martens, T. Katz. Essen: VGE Verlag GmbH, Essen, 213 – 218.

E. Reinsalu, I. Valgma, Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines. Oil Shale 2003, 20(3), 398 - 403.

E. Reinsalu, I. Valgma, Oil Shale Resources for Oil Production. Oil Shale 2007, 24, 9 - 14.

S. Sabanov, T. Tohver, E. Väli, O. Nikitin, J.-R. Pastarus, Geological aspects of risk management in oil shale mining. Oil shale 2008, Vol. 25, No. 2 Special, pp. 145-152.

T. Tohver, Utilization of waste rock from oil shale mining. Oil Shale 2010, 27(4), 321 - 330.

T. Tohver, Utilization of waste rock from oil shale mining. Tallinn University of Technology. Thesis on Power, Electrical and Mining Engineering D48. TTU Press, 2011, Tallinn, 123 pp.

V. Väizene, Backfilling technologies for oil shale mines. Valgma, I. (Eds.). Resource Reproducing, Low-wasted and Environmentally Protecting Technologies of Development of the Earth Interior (1 pp.). Tallinn: Department of Mining TUT; 2009, Russian University of People Friendship

I. Valgma, Oil Shale mining-related research in Estonia. Oil Shale 2009, 26(4), 445 - 150.

I. Valgma, A. Västrik, V. Karu, A. Anepaio, V. Väizene, A. Adamson, Future of oil shale mining technology. Oil Shale, 2008, 25(2S), 125 - 134.

I. Valgma, T. Tammeoja, A. Anepaio, V. Karu and A. Västrik, Underground mining challenges for Estonian oil shale deposit. Buhrow, Chr.; Zuchowski, J.; Haack, A. (Eds.). 2008, Schacht, Strecke und Tunnel. Freiberg, TU Bergakademie, pp. 161-172.

I. Valgma, T. Kattel, Low depth mining in Estonian oil shale deposit-Abbau von Ölschiefer in Estland. In: Kolloquium Schacht, Strecke und Tunnel 2005 : 14. und 15. April 2005, Freiberg/Sachsen: Kolloquium Schacht, Strecke und Tunnel 2005 : 14. und 15. April 2005, Freiberg/Sachsen. Freiberg: TU Bergakademie, 2005, 213 - 223.

I. Valgma, E. Reinsalu, S. Sabanov, V. Karu, Quality control of Oil Shale production in Estonian mines. Oil Shale 2010, 27(3), 239 - 249.

E. Väli, I. Valgma, E. Reinsalu, Usage of Estonian oil shale. Oil Shale 2008, 25(2S), 101 - 114.

A. Notton, U. Sõstra, The geological perspectives for Paleozoic carbonate raw material mining in Harjumaa County, Estonia. Lahtmets, R. (Eds.). 9th International Symposium Pärnu 2010 “Topical Problems in the Field of Electrical and Power Engineering” and “Doctoral School of Energy and Geotechnology II”, Pärnu, Estonia, June 14 - 19, 2010 (53 - 58). Tallinn: Estonian Society of Moritz Hermann Jacobi

Karu, V. (2011). European Union Baltic Sea region project “MIN-NOVATION”. Oil Shale, 28(3), 464 - 465.

Karu, V.; Valgma, I.; Rahe, T. (2013). Mining Waste Reduction Methods. Zakis, J. (Toim.). 13th International Symposium "Topical Problems in the Field of Electrical and Power Engineering", Doctoral Scholl of Energy and Geotechnology II, Pärnu, Estonia, 14-19.01.2013 (278 - 280). Tallinn: Elektrijam

Karu, V.; Västrik, A.; Valgma, I. (2008). Application of modelling tools in Estonian oil shale mining area . Oil Shale, 25(2S), 134 - 144.

Koitmets, K.; Reinsalu, E.; Valgma, I (2003). Precision of oil shale energy rating and oil shale resources. Oil Shale, 20(1), 15 - 24.

Valgma, I (2003). Estonian oil shale resources calculated by GIS method. Oil Shale, 20(3), 404 - 411.

Valgma, I. (2009). Oil Shale mining-related research in Estonia. Oil Shale, 26(4), 445 - 150.

Valgma, I.; Leiaru, M.; Karu, V.; Iskül, R. (2012). Sustainable mining conditions in Estonia. 11th International Symposium "Topical Problems in the Field of Electrical and Power Engineering", Doctoral Scholl of Energy and Geotechnology, Pärnu, Estonia, 16-21.01.2012 (229 - 238). Tallinn: Elektriajam.



  • There are currently no refbacks.