Lelde Bartuša


There are no normative provisions on patient euthanasia in Latvia. Consequently, the situation also arises that the concept and types of euthanasia are not forbidden, which creates a situation in which every individual understands this issue in public society's freedom. Consequently, some normative acts face controversy. For example, in relation to the patient's right to life and the right to die. In the context of historical development, the concept of "euthanasia" itself appeared only at the beginning of the 20th century; in the past, it was called "easy death" or "mercy".


easy death; euthanasia; killing mercy; patient

Full Text:



Latvijas Republikas Satversme (1922. 15. februāris). Latvijas Republikas likums. Ziņotājs, 6, 31.03.1994. https://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=57980, sk. 15.04.2018.

Pacienta tiesību likums (2009. 17. decembris). Latvijas Republikas likums. Latvijas Vēstnesis, 205 (4191), 30.12.2009. https://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=203008, sk. 15.04.2018.

BBC (2009, 3 July). Euthanasia and assisted dying. Retrieved 29.01.2018 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/christianethics/euthanasia_1.shtml

Bedworth, D.A., Bedworth, A.E. (2010). The Dictionary of Health Education, 189 p. Retrieved 06.04.2018 from https://books.google.lv/books?id=SihnDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA189&lpg=PA189&dq=person+in+the+ middle+eyelid+euthanasia&source=bl&ots=0my0LYR1S9&sig=VHMBpgdfHhyMjTGJdUVOpZnSkCg&hl=lv&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjS8tK558PaAhVEr6QKHfuEAKwQ6AEIYjAL#v=onepage&q=person%20in%20the%20middle%20eyelid%20euthanasia&f=false

Chauhan, S. (2016). Euthanasia. Retrieved 06.04.2018 from https://www.slideshare.net/ satyamchauhan921/euthanasia-65199294

Dowbiggin, I. (2007). A Concise History of Euthanasia: Life, Death, God, and Medicine. Rowman & Littlefield, 172 p. Retrieved 29.01.2018 from https://books.google.lv/books?id=CNigO7gMGkUC&pg= PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=euthanasia+in+the+ancients+time&source=bl&ots=Q4tTy53Hg8&sig=e0YTqHw9MN30tAvifYeqvsxtfko&hl=lv&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi11YHtqP3YAhVD2SwKHY2xBoEQ6AEIaDAL#v=onepage&q&f=false

Ebrahimi, N. (2012). The ethics of euthanasia. Australian Medical Student Journal, pp.73-78. Retrieved 26.01.2018 from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=dcfd148a-9bf6-4b8e-a4ed-bb23393ca3e3%40sessionmgr104

Esmaeilzadeh, M., Dictus, C., Kayvanpour, E., Sedaghat-Hamedani, F. etc. (2010). One Life Ends, Another Begins: Management of a Brain-Dead Pregnant Mother - A Systematic Review. BMC Medicine, vol. 8. Retrieved 02.05.2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002294/

Euthanasia (2012). Brief History of Euthanasia. Retrieved 06.04.2018 from http://iands-euthanasia. blogspot.com/2012/05/brief-history-of-euthanasia.html

Euthanasia (2014). Different Types. Retrieved 05.02.2018 from https://computerscience.johncabot. edu/courses/F2014CS130/ddimaggio/Pages/Types.html

Euthanasia.com (2014). The histoy of euthanasia. Retrieved 18.04.2018 from https://givethemachance-euthanasia.weebly.com/history.html

Franjo Cardinal Seper, Jerome Hamer, O.P. (1980, 5 May). Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration on Euthanasia. Retrieved 17.04.2018 from http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/ congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19800505_euthanasia_en.html

Mendola, A. (2016). Isn’t that euthanasia? Hastings Center Report, vol. 46 (2), pp. 9-11. Retrieved 02.02.2018 from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=ec09e766-1f7d-4cea-8f97-a4dfb6bab574%40sessionmgr4008

Menezes, R.A., Luna, N. (2017). Pregnancy and maternal brain death: decisions on the fetal life. Interface, vol. 21, no.62. Retrieved 17.04.2018 from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1414-32832017000300629&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en

NHS (2017, 29 June). Euthanasia and assisted suicide. Retrieved 23.01.2018 from https://www.nhs.uk/ conditions/euthanasia-and-assisted-suicide/

Olasunkanmi, A. (2015). Euthanasia and the Experiences of the Yoruba People of Nigeria. Ethics & Medicine, vol. 31 (1), pp. 31-38. Retrieved 26.01.2018 from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/ pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=44cd8819-c0c3-4c7f-ae39-3e31a38fd7fa%40sessionmgr4006

Parmar, P., Rathod, S., Parikh, A. (2016). Perceptions of patients’ towards euthanasia – A medico-legal perspective. International Archives of Integrated Medicine, vol. 3(5), pp. 20-23. Retrieved 26.01.2018 from http://web.a.ebscohost.com

Poļaks, R. (2015). Eitanāzijas ētiskie un krimināltiesiskie aspekti. [Promocijas darbs]. http://dspace.lu.lv/dspace/bitstream/handle/7/31324/298-51365-Polaks_Rihards_rp09143.pdf?sequence=1, sk. 05.02.2018.

ProCon. org (2013, 23 July) Historical Timeline. Retrieved 06.04.2018 from https://euthanasia. procon.org/view.timeline.php?timelineID=000022

Rīgas Stradiņa universitāte (2018). Hipokrātiskais zvērests. https://www.rsu.lv/par-rsu/vesture/hipokrata-zverests, sk. 30.01.2018.

Sargtorņa Tiešsaistes bibliotēka (2004). Sens zvērests, kas aktuāls arī mūsdienās. https://wol.jw.org/lv/wol/d/r49/lp-lt/102004288, sk. 30.01.2018.

Slick, M. (2018). What does the Bible say about euthanasia? Retrieved 29.01.2018 from https://carm.org/bible-say-about-euthanasia

Smets, T., Bilse, J., Cohen, J., Mette, L.R., Deliens, L. (2010). Legal Euthanasia in Belgium: Characteristics of All Reported Euthanasia Cases. Medical Care, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 187-192. Retrieved 04.05.2018 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8b72/0ffbf506307d1bc2efedceede2fb6585b470.pdf

The Official Portal of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2017, 20 October). Euthanasia and palliative care. Retrieved 06.05.2018 from http://www.luxembourg.public.lu/en/vivre/famille/fin-vie/euthanasie-soinspalliatifs/index.html

The Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) (2018). Euthanasie. Retrieved 02.02.2018 from https://www.knmg.nl/advies-richtlijnen/dossiers/euthanasie.htm

Studbooks.net (2013). Общее понятие и виды эвтаназии. Полученное 31.01.2018 из http://studbooks. net/1036356/pravo/obschee_ponyatie_vidy_evtanazii#47

Vitaminov.net (2010). Что такое активная эвтаназия? Полученное 01.02.2018 из http://www.vitaminov.net/rus-nurse_guide-evtanaziya-0-23988.html

Всеукраинское объединение за право на эвтаназию (2010). История эвтаназии. Полученное 06.04.2018 из http://euthanasia.at.ua/blog/2010-10-06-1

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/iss2018.4266


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Lelde Bartuša