Aivis Dombrovskis


This paper reflects the results of a study that was aimed at finding links between identity crises and the sociodemographic indicators of first-year female students at Latvian universities.  The research cohort consists of 501 (N = 501) students aged 18 to 27 (M = 20.33; SD = 1.937).  The author used the Identity Distress Survey (IDS) for the research (Berman, et al., 2004), as well as the sociodemographic data of the students.  The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyse links between IDS indicators, and detailed analysis of links between IDS factors was also conducted.



Identity crisis; female; female students; identity; Identity Distress Survey; IDS; IKA; Latvia; students; social environment; sociodemographic indicators

Full Text:



Adams, G. R. (2007). Identity status. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. SAGE Publications.

Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4rd ed. rev.).Washington.

Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe,T. (2004). An organizing framework for collective identity: Articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 80–114.

Atkins, R., Hart, D., & Donnelly, T. M. (2005). The Association of Childhood Personality type with volunteering during adolescence. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 51, 145–162.

Bamberg, M. (2004). Talk, small stories, and adolescent identities. Human Development, 47, 366–369.

Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 139–168.

Berman, S. L., Montogomery M. J., & Kurtines W. M. (2004). The development and validation of a measure of identity distress. Identity: An International Journal Of Theory and Research, 4,1–8.

Breakwell, G. M. (2010). Resising representations and identity processes. Online Journal. Papers on Social Representations, 19(6.1–6.11).

Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106, 676–713.

Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of homosexuality, 4, 219–235.

Chen, S., Boucher, H. C., & Tapias, M. P. (2006). The relational self revealed: Integrative conceptualization of the implications and interpersonal life. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 151–179.

Cohen, A. B., Hall, D. E., Koenig, H. G., & Meador, K. G. (2005). Social versus individual motivation: Implications for normative definitions of religions orientation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 48–61.

Cote, J. E., & Levine, C. G. (2002). Identity formation, agency, and culture: A social psychological synthesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cross, W. E. (1971). The negro to black conversion expierence. Toward a psychology of black liberation. Black World, 20(9), 13–27.

D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identiy development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E.J. Trickett, R.J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp.312 – 333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

De Fina, A. (2007). Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice. Language in Society, 36, 371–392.

Dombrovskis A., (2014a). Latvijas sieviešu feministiskās identitātes dimensijas prognozējošie faktori., Daugavpils Universitāte., Nepublicēta disertācija.

Dombrovskis A., (2014b). Identitātes krīzes aptaujas psihometriskie rādītāji Latvijas vidē. Sociālo Zinātņu Vēstnesis. DU Sociālo Zinātņu Fakultāte. Sociālo Pētījumu Institūts., Daugavpils Universitāte. 1 – (18), pp.60 -81.

Downing, N. E., & Roush, K. L. (1985). From passive acceptance to active commitment: A model of feminist identity development for women. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, 695–709.

Eriksons, E. H., (1998). Identitāte: Jaunība un krīze. Jumava.

Grotevant, H. D., Dunbar, N., Kohler, J. K., & Esau, A. M. L. (2000). Adoptive identity: How contexts within and beyond the family shape developmental pathways. Family Relations, 49, 379–387.

Haslam, S. A., & Naomi, E. (2011). Identity processes in organizations. In S.J. Schwartz et al. (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. Springer Science+Business Media.

Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2005). Identity as a source of moral motivation. Human Development, 48, 232–256.

Heckhausen, J. (2001). Adaptation and resilience in midlife. In M. E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development (pp. 345–394). New York: Wiley.

Helms, J. E. (Ed.) (1993). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research, and practice. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hernandez, L., Montgomery, M. J., & Kurtines, W. M. (2006). Identity distress and adjustment problems in at–risk adolescents. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 6, 27–33.

Jones, S .R. (1997). Voices of identity and difference: A qualitative exploration of the multiple dimensions of identity development in women college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 376–386.

Josselson, R. (1987). Finding herself: Pathways to identity development in women. San Francisko: Jossey-Bass.

Kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., & Heppner, W. L. (2008). Secure versus fragile self-esteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: Converging findings across three different markers. Journal of Personality, 76, 477–512.

Kerpelman, J. L., Pittman, J. F., & Lamke, L. K. (1997). Toward a microprocess perspective on adolescent identity development: An identity control theory approach. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 325–346.

Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

MacDonald, D. A. (2000). Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the five factor model of personality. Journal of Personality, 68, 153–197

Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J.Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp.159–188). New York: John Wiley.

Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of Ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3,551–559.

Markova, I. (1987). Knowledge of the self through interaction. In K. Yardley & T. Honess (Eds.), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives (pp. 65–80). New York: Wiley.

Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.

Manzi, C., Vignoles, V. L., Regalia, C., & Scabini, E. (2006). Cohesion and enmeshment revisited: Differentiation, identity, and well-being in two European cultures. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 673–689.

McAdams, D. P. (2006). The problem of narrative coherence. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 19, 109–125.

Mittal, B. (2006). I, me, and mine – how products become consumers’ extended selves. Journal of Consumer Research, 5, 550–562.

Phinney, J. S.(2000). Identity formation among U.S. ethnic adolescents from collectivist cultures. Paper presented at the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescents. Chicago.

Raščevska, M. (2005). Psiholoģisko testu un aptauju konstruēšana un adaptācija. Rīga: Raka.

Raskin, P. (2002). Identity in adulthood: Reflections on recent theory and research. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(1), 101 – 108.

Robbins, A., & Wilner, A. (2001). Quarterlife crisis: The unique challenges of life in your twenties. NY: Penguin Putnam. New York.

Rossi, N. E., & Mebert, C. J. (2011). Does a quarterlife crisis exist? The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 172(2), 141 –161.

Scabini, E., & Manzi, C. (2011). Family processes and idnetity. In S.J. Schwartz et al. (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. Springer Science+ Business Media.

Sedikides, C., & Brewer, M. B. (2001). Individual self, relational self, collective self. Philadelphia, Psychology Press.

Sedikides, C., & Gregg, A. P. (2008). Self-enhancement: Food for thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 102–116.

Shaffer, D. R. (2009). Idenity crisis. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. SAGE Publications.

Schildkraut, D. J. (2007). Defining american identity in the twenty-first century: How much “there” is there? The Journal of Politics, 69, 597–615.

Schildkraut, D. J. (2005). Press “one” for english: Language policy, public opinion, and American identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Swann, W. B., & Jr. (2005). The self and identity negotiation. Interaction Studies, 6, 69–83.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup behavior (pp. 7–24). Chicago. Nelson Hall.

Taylor, D. M. (1997). The quest for collective identity: The plight of disadvantaged ethnic minorities. Canadian Psychology, 38(3), 174–190.

Terry, M., Sweeny, K., & Shepperd, J. (2007). Self-presentation. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. SAGE Publications.

Thatcher, S. M. B., & Zhu, X. (2006). Changing identities in a changing workplace: Identification, identity enactment, self-verification, and telecommuting. Academy of Management Review, 31, 1076–1088.

Van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504–535.

Vignoles, V. L., Schwartz, S. J., & Luyckx, K. (2011). Introduction: Toward an integrative view of identity. In S.J.Schwartz et al. (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Waterman, A. S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review,19, 591–621.

Waterman, A. S. (1985). Identity in the context of adolescent psychology. In A.S. Waterman (Ed.), Identity in adolescence: Progress and contents: (New directions for child development, No.30). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Whitbourne, S. K. (1986). The me I know: A study of adult identity. New York: Springer-Verlag.



  • There are currently no refbacks.