BYSTANDERS IN THE SCHOOL VIOLENCE SITUATIONS FROM THE PUPIL PERSPECTIVE

Dita Nīmante, Baiba Molnika

Abstract


Bullying rarely takes place between two individuals in isolation, usually, it occurs with pupil’s bystanders present. How often pupils take the role of bystander, what bystanders usually do in the bullying situation and how it can be explained was examined with 5003 pupils attending 55 Latvia’s schools. Responses indicated that more than a third (n=1913) of all respondents admitted that they had been in a situation where they witnessed another pupil being bullied. After analyzing the responses of those respondents, was concluded that although the majority of pupils felt bad about it, most did nothing about it or did not consider the situation important for involvement. This could be explained by the fact that the majority of children did not know what to do in the particular bullying situation. The implications for research and practice are debated.


Keywords


bullying, bystanders, pupils, Latvia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barnett, J.E.H., Fisher, K.W., O’Connell, N., Franco, K. (2019). Promoting upstander behavior to address bullying in schools. Middle School Journal, 50 (1), 6-11.

Bistrong, E., Bottiani J.H., Bradshaw, C.P. (2019). Youth Reactions to Bullying: Exploring the Factors Associated with Students’ Willingness to Intervene. Journal of School Violence, 18 (4), 522- 535.

Casey, E.A., Lindhorst, T., Storer, H.L. (2016). The Situational-Cognitive Model of Adolescent Bystander Behavior: Modeling Bystander Decision-Making in the Context of Bullying and Teen Dating Violence. Psychology of Violence, 7(1).

Dewey, G., Cornell, Ph.D., Brockenbrough, K. (2004). Identification of Bullies and Victims. Journal of School Violence, Nr3, 63-87.

Fair, G., Florell, D. (2019). Bullying, bystanders, and books. Middle School Journal, 50(1), 12-23.

Ferrara, P., Franceschini, G., Villani, A. (2019). Physical, psychological, and social impact of school violence on children. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, Nr.45.

Graham, S. (2016). Victims of Bullying in Schools. Theory into Practice, 55(2), 136-144.

Goodwin, J., Bradley, S.K., Donohoe, P., Queen, K., O’Shea, M., Horgan, A. (2019). Bullying in Schools: An Evaluation of the Use of Drama in Bullying Prevention. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 14 (3), 329-342.

Jozauska, K. (2018). Skolotāju kompetence vardarbības pret bērnu novēršanā. Izglītība zinātnei un praksei, Vulāne, A.Stikute, E. (Eds). LU Pedagoģijas, psiholoģijas un mākslas fakultāte Skolotāju izglītības nodaļa. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds.

Linde-Ozola, Z. (2019). Pārskats par programmām seksuālās vardarbības pret bērnu prevencijā Latvijā. Latvijas Universitāte. Retrieved from: https://centrsdardedze.lv/data/petijumi/parskats-par-prevences-pasakumiem.pdf

Maunder, R., Crafter, S. (2018). School bullying from a sociocultural perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 38,13-20.

Monks, C.P., Smith, P.K., Naylor, P., Barter, C., Ireland, J.L., Coyne, L. (2009). Bullying in different contexts: Commonalities, differences and the role of theory. Aggression and violent behavior, 5.

Mudhovozi, P. (2017). Bullies and Victims at a Public Secondary School: The Teachers’ Perspective. International Journal of Educational Sciences, Nr10, 115-121.

O’Brien, N. (2019). Understanding alternative bullying perspectives through research engagement with young people. Frontiers in Psychology, N3, 34-37.

O'Connell, P., Pepler, D., Craig, W. (1999). Peer involvement in bullying: insights and challenges for intervention. J Adolesc, 22(4), 437-452.

Olweus, D.A. (2010). Bullying in schools: facts and intervention. Kriminalistik, 64(6), 28-32.

Olweus, D. (1993). Social Withdrawal, Inhibition, and Shyness in Childhood. Psychology Press, Nr8, 315-341.

Peguero, A.A, Connell N.M, Hong J.S (2018). Introduction to the Special Issue “School Violence and Safety.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 16(2),119-123.

PISA. (2015). Students Wellbeing. Volume III. OECD iLibrary. Retrieved from:

https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264273856-en.pdf?expires=1615297206&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=E1465FA6D323C9189BA847E0F3EB1EBD

PISA. (2018a). Latvia Student performance (PISA 2018). OECD Library. Retrieved from: https://gpseducation.oecd.org/CountryProfile?primaryCountry=LVA&treshold=10&topic=PI

PISA. (2018b). The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Results from PISA. OECD library. Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/PISA2018_CN_LVA.pdf

Ribeiro, I.M., Ribeiro,P., Teixeira,A.S Pratesi,R., Gandolfi L. (2015). Prevalence of various forms of violence among school students. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 28(1), 54-59.

Rigby, K., Slee, P.T. (1991). Bullying among Australian School Children: Reported Behavior and Attitudes toward Victims. The Journal of Social Psychology 131(5):615-27.

Rigby, K. (2014). How teachers address cases of bullying in schools: a comparison of five reactive approaches. Educational Psychology in Practice, 30(4), 409-419.

Salimi, N., Karimi-Shahanjarin, A., Rezapur-Shahkolai, F., Hamzeh, B., Roshanaei, G., Babamiri, M. (2020). Use of a Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluate the Implementation of Violence and Bullying Prevention Programs in Schools. Education and Urban Society.

Salmivalli, C. (2014). Participant roles in bullying: How can peer bystanders be utilized in interventions? Theory Into Practice, 53(4), 286-292.

Salmivalli, C., Voeten, R. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms, and behavior in bullying situations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 246-258.

Salmivalli, C., Huttunen, A., & Lagerspetz, K. M. (1997). Peer networks and bullying in schools. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 305–312. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00040

SKDS. (2020). Stiprinot ģimenes, kopienas un attiecības: antropoloģiska pieeja vardarbības izpētē. Retrieved from: https://www.antropologija.lu.lv/fileadmin/user_upload/lu_portal/projekti/antropologija/Vardarbibas_pieredze_fin.pdf

Stephen, R., Harphold, J.A. (1999). School Violence: Lessons Learned. FBI Law Enforcement

Bulletin, 68 (9), 9-16.

Storer, H.L., Casey, E.A., Herrenkohl, T.I. (2017). Developing “whole school” bystander interventions: The role of school-settings in influencing adolescents responses to dating violence and bullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 74, 87-95.

Twemlow, S.W., Fonagy, P., Sacco, F.C. (2004). The role of the bystander in the social architecture of bullying and violence in schools and communities. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1036, 215-232.

TNS Latvija. (2015). Tiesībsarga pētījums par vardarbības izplatību pret bērniem Latvijā. Retrieved from: https://www.tiesibsargs.lv/uploads/content/legacy/4239_TNS_Vardarbibas_pret_berniem_izplatiba_Latvija_2015.pdf

UNESCO. (2018). School violence and bullying: Global status and trends, drivers and consequences. United Nations Educational, scientific, and cultural organization. Retrieved from: http://www.infocoponline.es/pdf/BULLYING.pdf

UNESCO. (2019). Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying. United Nations Educational, scientific, and cultural organization. UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366483

Volk, A.A., Dane, A.V., Marini, Z.A., Vaillancourt, A. (2015). Adolescent Bullying, Dating, and Mating: Testing an Evolutionary Hypothesis. Evolutionary Psychology, 13 (4).

Walter, G.D., Espelage, D.L. (2019). Cognitive/Affective Empathy, Pro-Bullying Beliefs, and Willingness to Intervene on Behalf of a Bullied Peer. Youth & Society, Nr4, 161-163.

Yang, A., Salmivalli, C. (2015). Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying programme on bully-victims, bullies, and victims. Educational Research, 57(1), 80-90.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2021vol3.6393

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.