CREATING A TRADITIONAL ORCHESTRA FOR THE NEEDS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION
Keywords:Traditional orchestra, musical enjoyment, intellectual deficit, applies behavior analysis
AbstractThe creation and teaching of a musical ensemble constitutes a complex process. The process becomes all the more complex when it entails the needs of Special Education. The goal of the present study is to present the teaching of a traditional orchestra to individuals suffering from intellectual deficits. Our methodological framework is anchored on: (a) Applied Behavior Analysis (Miller, 1962; Krumboltz & Krumboltz, 1972; Gibbs & Luyben, 1985; Kazdin, 1984) with the help of technology (Makris, 2015); and (b) the analysis of the mathematical law governing musical pleasure (Makris, Mullet, 2003). More specifically, we will be analyzing the manner in which we can create and teach a traditional orchestra to mentally disabled individuals through the application of the model “visual stimulus” – “psychophysical reaction”. The gradual shaping of behavior entails progressive reinforcement and not anticipation of perfection, the motive of the mentally disabled individuals to participate and be included. The results presented in the graphs confirm in practice the success of the present endeavor.
Αmarantidis, A. (1990). The tonal music system. Text in Greek, Athens: ed. Papagrigoriou - Nakas.
Anderson, N. H. (1981a). Foundations of information integration theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Anderson, N. H. (1991). Contributions to information integration theory (vols. 1, 2, 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Anderson, N. H. (1996). A functional theory of cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gibbs, J. W., & Luyben, P. D. (1985). Treatment of self-injurious behavior: Contingent versus noncontingent possible practice over – correction. Behavior Modification, 9, 3-21.
Lee Heward, W. (2011). Childrens with Special needs, an introduction to the special education, text in Greek, Athens: Topos.
Kazdin, A. E. (1984). Behavior modification in applied settings. Homewood, IL.: Dorsey Press.
Krumboltz, J. D. & Krumboltz, H. B. (1972). Changing children’s behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice - Hall.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
Makris I., (2015). Innovation and use of technology in Special Education, Erkyna, Athens: Panhellenic Scientific and Educational Association of secondary Education PA.P.E.D.E.
Makris, I., Macri, D. (2009). Introduction to Music Therapy, text in Greek, Athens: ed. Grigoris. 12. Makris, I., Mullet, E. (2003). Judging the pleasantness of contour – rhythm – pitch – timbre. American Journal of Psychology, vol 116(4), p. 581-611.
Miller, R. B. (1962). Analysis and specification of behaviorfor training. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Trainning reasearch and education: Science edition, New York: Wiliey.
Woolfolk, A. (2005). Educational Psychology, text in Greek, Athens: ed. Ellin. 57