• Inta Umbraško Institute of Life Science and Technologies, Daugavpils University (LV)
  • Anna Batjuka Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University. (LV)
  • Aleksandrs Petjukevičs Institute of Life Sciences and Technologies, Daugavpils University (LV)
  • Mihails Pupins Institute of Life Sciences and Technologies, Daugavpils University (LV)
  • Natalja Škute Institute of Life Sciences and Technologies, Daugavpils University (LV)



bacteria, Chromogenic Agar, infection, salmonellosis, turtle


Salmonellosis infection is caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. There are many pathways for the pathogenic bacteria to spread which is through contaminated food, water, and contact with animals. The research was conducted to detect Salmonella spp. carriage in free-living aquatic turtles and zoo turtles. Turtles are frequent inhabitants of zoos and the owners of a large number of bacteria in their outer skin and shell surfaces that under adverse conditions can multiply and lead to the development of infection. However, they are known to be a frequent source of Salmonella infection without showing signs of disease. The risk of human infection exists if personal hygiene is not followed after contact with a turtle. Identification of bacteria of the genus Salmonella, the main causative agent of the disease was determined by the standard method on chromogenic Salmonella LAB-Agarᵀᴹ (BIOMAXIMA, Poland) agar. The inoculation was incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 ± 1°C for 72 h. Serotype (D serotype) was determined by serotyping in 11 from 16 (68.75%) Zoo inhabitants but not found in 25 free-living turtles. Our present research is of theoretical and practical value for the study of free-living turtles as well as from the collections of zoos under protection in Latvia and Europe. It is necessary to remember the possibility of infection with pathogenic bacteria.

Supporting Agencies
We thank Latgale Zoo veterinarian Yuri Petrov and MSc. Biol Nadežda Harlamova for participating in the sampling and providing information about turtles in the Zoo collection. Funding, This study was partly supported by the Nr. 1495/2022/3 “The European pond turtle Emys orbicularis, L. 1758 microbiome investigation and analysis of the Latvian territory”. The research was partly funded by ERA-NET Cofund BiodivRestore project “A socio-ecological evaluation of wetlands restoration and reintroduction programs in favor of the emblematic European pond turtle and associated biodiversity, a pan-European approach” (EMYS-R).


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How to Cite

I. Umbraško, A. Batjuka, A. Petjukevičs, M. Pupins, and N. Škute, “ESTIMATION OF SALMONELLA SPP. PREVALENCE AND DIVERSITY AMONG FREE-LIVING TURTLES AND A ZOO COLLECTION”, ETR, vol. 1, pp. 235–239, Jun. 2023, doi: 10.17770/etr2023vol1.7267.