• Linda Balode Latvijas Lauksaimniecības Universitāte



Healing garden, nature, restoration, senses, sustainable development, therapeutic


Health gardens therapy is a relatively new discipline of landscape science of which many fields of research are still undiscovered. While researching the international scientific literature the more underlying theories of the health gardens need to be considered as well. In Latvia the development of senses gardens has not been enough explored. Purpose: Based on the international sensation, treatment and therapy garden studies establish perspectives for sustainable development of therapy gardens in Latvia. Materials and Methods: Summarize literature on the impact of the Latvian rehabilitation centre and medical treatment worldwide on people as well as to study information used in the Latvian statistical data bases, historical papers, scientific research literature, publications, documents, and electronic resources analysis. To explore health and rehabilitation garden sustainable development and to create new opportunities to improve their residents’ mental health. Such garden visits not only develop feelings and senses of a small child or a teenage, but also enable residents of any age with various disabilities to spend their free time interactively. Perhaps such gardens make it possible to build self-confidence in people and underpin their social inclusion.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Linda Balode, Latvijas Lauksaimniecības Universitāte
    Mg.arch., doktorantūras studente


Council of Europe. European Landscape Convention. CETS No. 176. Florence. 2000. pp. 2-9

Ārstniecības likums. LR likums. [tiešsaiste]. Latvijas vēstnesis. 1997.gada 1.jūlijā. Likums stājas spēkā 1997.gada 1.oktobrī. Rīgā. [atsauce 2013.g. 5. febr.]. Pieejas veids:">

BECKWITH, M.E., GILSTER, S.D. The paradise garden: A model garden design for those with Alzheimer's disease, Activities, Adaptation and Aging, New York: Haworth, 1997. Vol. 2. Nr. 22, pp. 3-16.

CHAWLA, L. Significant life experiences revisited: A review of research on sources of environmental sensitivity. Environmental Education Research. 1998. No. 4, pp. 369–382.

COOPER. M. C., BARNES, M. Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits, and Design Recommendations. Martinez, CA: The Center for Health Design. 1995.

COOPER, M. C., BARNES, M. Healing gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1999. pp. 27-86.

DILANI, A. Design and health – The therapeutic benefits of design. Stockholm: AB Svensk Byggtjänst. 2001. pp. 31-38.

ENDO, H. Change of dementia care management after implementation of long-term care insurance. Clinical neurology, Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2003. Vol. 43. No. 11, pp. 788-90.

FRUMKIN, H. Healthy places: exploring the evidence. American Journal of Public Health 93. 2003. pp. 1451–1456.

FRUMKIN, H. (Ed.), 2005. Environmental Health. From Global to Local, San Francisco, CA. pp. 170–196.

GERLACH-SPRIGGS, KAUFMAN, N. R. E. and SAM BASS WARNER, JR. Restorative Garden:The Healing Landscape. New Haven. CT and London: Yale University Press. 1998. 29 p.

GESLER, W. Therapeutic landscapes: theory and case study of Epidauros. Environment and Planning: Society and Space. Greece. 1993. No. 11, pp. 171–189.

GOETHE, J.W. Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours). In: J. Naydler (ed.), Geothe on Science: Anthology of Goethe’s scientific Writings 1996, Edinburg: Floris Books. 1810. 116 p.

HOBHOUSE, P. Gardens of Persia. Carlsbad, California: Kales Press. 2004. 192 p.

KAPLAN, S. Some hidden benefits of the urban forest. In: Konijnendijk, C.C., Schipperijn, J., Hoyer, K.K. (Eds.), 2004. Forestry Serving Urbanised Societies. Selected papers from the conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark, IUFRO World Series, IUFRO, Vienna. 27–30. August 2002. Vol. 14, pp. 221–232.

KURTZ, E. Verzeichnis alter Kultstätten in Lettland. Mitteilungen aus der Livländischen Geschichte. 1924. Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 47–117.

LAPPE, J. M. Reminiscing: The Life Review Therapy. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Vol. 13. No. 4, pp. 1987 pp. 12-16.

MERLEAU-PONTY, M. Signes. Paris: Gallimard. 1967. 234 p.

MORRIS, N. Health, well-being and open space. Literature Review. OPEN space: the research centre for inclusive access to outdoor environments. Edinburgh College of Art and Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. 2003.

NIGHTINGALE, F. Notes on Nursing. London: Ballière Tindall. 1860. (Revised with Additions 1996.).

NOMURA, N., HASHIMOTO, T. Group reminiscence therapy for Japanese elderly community. Source: Shinrigaku Kenkyu, Japan. 2006. Vol. 77, pp. 32–39.

OTTOSSON, J., GRAHN, P. A comparison of leisure time spent in a garden with leisure time spent indoors: on measures of restoration in residents in geriatric care. Landscape Research. 2005. No. 30, pp. 23–55.

ULRICH, R.S. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. 1984. Science 224 (4647), pp. 420–421.

ULRICH, R.S., PARSONS, R. Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health. In: D. Relf (Ed.), The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 1992. pp. 93-105.

ULRICH, R.S. Effects of gardens on health outcomes: theory and research. In: Cooper-Marcus, C., Barnes, M. (Eds.), Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. Wiley, NY. 1999. pp. 27–86.

ULRICH, R.S. Health benefits of gardens in hospitals [tiešsaiste]. Paper for conference: Plants for People. International Exhibition Floriade. 2002. [atsauce 2013.g. 23. marts]. Pieejas veids: attachments/contentmanagers/25/HealthSettingsUlrich.pdf"> attachments/contentmanagers/25/HealthSettingsUlrich.pdf

ULRICH, R.S., GLIPIN, L. Healing arts – nutrition for the soul. In: Charmel, P. M. Frampton, S. B. and Gilpin, L. (eds.) (2003) Putting Patients First – Designing and Practicing Patient Centred Care, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2003. pp. 117–146.

SHERMAN, S.A., VARNI, J.W., ULRICH, R.S., MALCARNE, V.L. Post-occupancy evaluation of healing gardens in a pediatric cancer center. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2005. No. 73, pp. 167–183.

STIGSDOTTER, U.A., GRAHN, P. What makes a garden a Healing Garden? Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture. 2002. pp. 60–69.

STIGSDOTTER, U.A. A garden at your workplace may reduce stress. Design & Health. 2004. pp. 147–157.

WELL, N.M. At home with nature: Effects of greenness on children’s cognitive functioning. Environment and Behavior. 2000. No. 32, pp. 775–795.

World Health Organization. Constitution of the World Health Organization. WHO, Geneva. 1946.

Bruknas muiža [tiešsaiste]. Bruknas muiža piedzīvo straujas pārmaiņas [atsauce 2013.g. 16. aprīlis]. Pieejas veids: com_content&task=view&id=8&Itemid=9"> com_content&task=view&id=8&Itemid=9

Labklājības ministrija [tiešsaiste]. Sociālā rehabilitācija [atsauce 2013.g. 7. janv.]. Pieejas veids:">

Latvijas republikas centrālās statistikas datu bāze [tiešsaiste]. Veselības aprūpes pamatrādītāji gada beigās [atsauce 2013.g. 5. febr.]. Pieejas veids:">

Liepājas Neredzīgo biedrība [tiešsaiste]. Projekts: „Dvēseles Veldzes Dārzs” [atsauce 2013.g. 16. aprīlis]. Pieejas veids: jaunakie-projekti/projekts-dveseles-veldzes-darzs/"> jaunakie-projekti/projekts-dveseles-veldzes-darzs/

Nacionālais veselības dienests [tiešsaiste]. Statistikas dati par 2010.gadu (iekļauts arī salīdzinājums ar iepriekšējiem gadiem) [atsauce 2013.g. 10. janv.]. Pieejas veids:">

Slimību profilakses un kontroles centrs [tiešsaiste]. Latvijas veselības aprūpes statistikas gadagrāmata 2011. Sabiedrības veselība [atsauce 2013.g. 10. janv.]. Pieejas veids:">

Sociālās integrācijas valsts aģentura [tiešsaiste]. Valsts finansētie sociālie pakalpojumi. [atsauce 2013.g. 17. marts]. Pieejas veids:">

Valmieras pilsētas pašvaldība [tiešsaiste]. "Gaujas Stāvo krastu Sajūtu parks". [atsauce 2013.g. 16. aprīlis.]. Pieejas veids:">