Iveta Ludviga, Irina Senņikova, Agita Kalviņa


Public sector reforms in many countries have been related to cost reductions, increased workload and similar issues. Ignoring the impact of reforms on employee job satisfaction may decrease employee engagement and the quality of service delivery. This paper aims to identify the main factors that determine the level of job satisfaction of public sector employees in a developing country and to find out which factors should be addressed first in order to decrease employee turnover. The survey conducted in 2015 included 365 respondents. For data analysis, partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique is used to test the model and identify the most important factors relevant to turnover intentions. The results indicate a strong relationship between satisfaction factors and intentions to stay. Satisfaction partly mediates the association between career growth possibilities, work environment, attitude of a direct manager, pay as well as social security and intentions to stay. Growth has the strongest total effect on intentions to stay with a public sector organisation. Thus, taking into consideration the cost cuttings and economic situation, career growth and the reward system are the two factors, which should be addressed first. Moreover, pay is the most important factor for the attraction of younger generation employees to the public sector. 


public sector; human resource management; employee satisfaction; turnover; intentions to stay

Full Text:



Bodur, S., 2002. Job satisfaction of health care staff employed at health care in Turkey. Occupational medicine, 52(6), pp. 353-355.

Bovaird, T. & Loffler, E., 2005. Public Management and Governance. London: Routledge.

Cankar, S. & Petkovsek, V., 2014. Measuring Employee Satisfaction in Public Sector Organisations: A Case Study from Slovenia. Munich, The Clute International Academic Conference.

Chang, C. C., Chiu, C. M. & Chen, C. A., 2010. The effect of TQM practices on employee satisfaction and loyalty in government. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 21(12), pp. 1299-1314.

Eliassen, K. A. & Sitter, N., 2008. Understanding Public Management. Ed.l.:SAGE Publications.

Erturk, A., 2014. Influences of HR Practices, Social Exchange, and Trust on Turnover Intentions of Public IT Professional. Public Personnel Management, 43(1), p. 140=175.

Gordon, V., 2011. Exploring the job satisfaction of municipal clerks. Review of Public Personnel Administration, Volume 31, pp. 190-208.

Gupta, M. & Sharma, P., 2009. Job satisfaction level among employees: a case study of Jammu region, J&K. The Icfain Journal of Management Research, 8(5), pp. 17-25.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M. & Sarsdet, M., 2011. PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), pp. 139-151.

Hood, C., 1991. A public management for all seasons. Public Administration, 69(1), p. 319.

Huges, O. E., 2003. Public Management and Administration. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Yang, K. & Kasseket, A., 2009. Linking management reform with employee job satisfaction: evidence from federal agencies. The Journal of Public Administration Research and theory, Volume 20, pp. 423-436.

Kim, S., 2002. Participative management and job satisfaction: lessons for management leadership. Public Administrative review, 62(2), pp. 231-241.

Kim, S., 2009. IT employee job satisfaction in the public sector. International Journal of Public Administration, Volume 32, pp. 1070-1097.

Kumari, G. & Pandey, K. M., 2011. Job satisfaction in Public Sector and Private Sector: A Comparison. International Journal of Innovation and Technology, pp. 222-228.

Locke, E. A., 1969. What is job satisfaction. Organisational Behaviour and Human Performance, Volume 4, pp. 309-336.

Meuleman, L., 2008. Public management and metagovernance of hierarchies, networks and markets: the feasibility of designing and managing governance style combinations. Ed.l.:Springer.

Nohria, N., Groysberg, B. & Lee, L. E., 2008. Employee Motivation: A Powerful New Model. Harvard Business Review, Volume July-August.

O`Riordan, J., 2013. Public Service Motivation, Dublin: Institute of Public Administration.

Osborn, S., 2010. The new Public Governance: emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance. London and New York: Taylor and Francis.

Politt, C. & Bouckaert, G., 2011. Public management reform: a comparative analysis: New Public management, Governance and Ne0-Weberian State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rutkovska, A., 2015. Makroekonomika.lv. [Online]
Available at: https://www.makroekonomika.lv/strukturalas-reformas-latvija-bez-skalpela-neiztikt-2-dala
[Accessed 28 October 2015].

Sajjad, A., Ghazanfar, H. & Ramzan, M., 2013. Impact of Motivation on Employee Turnover in Telecom Sector of Pakistan. Journal of business Studies Quarterly, 5(1), pp. 76-92.

Schwab, K., 2015. The Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015, Ed.l.: Word Economic Forum.

Steijn, B., 2002. HR and job satisfaction in Dutch public sector M. Potsdam, 4-7 September, Study Group on Public Personnel Policies.

Turkyilmaz, A., Akman, G., Ozkan, C. & Pastiszak, Z., 2011. Empirical study of public sector employee loyalty and satisfaction. Industrial management and Data Systems, 111(5), pp. 675-693.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2016vol4.1577


  • There are currently no refbacks.