• Inese Elsiņa Teacher Training and Education Management academy
  • Guna Svence Teacher Training and Education Management academy



emotional awareness, intervention program for children, middle childhood, social competence


Emotion awareness (EA) is the cornerstone of emotional intelligence, an essential prerequisite for the development of children's social competence. Recent scientific studies have shown that EA has a number of positive psychological outcomes. The main objective of the study was to develop and implement the EA and social competence intervention program for children (N=19, boys n=8 and girls n=11, age8 -9, M=8,05, SD=0,23) and compare the indicators of EA of middle childhood students before and after the realization of the author's program. Additional purpose of the study was the approbation of The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C; Bajgar&Lane, 2003) by analysis of its psychometric indicators. In total 13 sessions were carried out during the school year 2013/2014 - from the beginning of November, 2013 until the end of May, 2014. LEAS-C (Bajgar&Lane, 2003) and Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ, Porter & Cattel, 1975), observations, interviews, content analysis were used. The study results show the effectiveness of intervention programs, namely, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between the EA level of children before and after the intervention program (SELF t=- 2,99, p=0,008, OTHER t=- 3,78, p=0,001, TOTAL t=- 3,58 (p=0,002<0,05). The level of EA increased and the quality of emotional vocabulary improved after the intervention program. The LEAS-C version in Latvian language of showed high internal consistency scores and high Inter-Rater Reliability between the two encoders. The paper also carries out detailed analysis of indicators of construct validity.

Author Biographies

  • Inese Elsiņa, Teacher Training and Education Management academy
    absolvente, psiholoģe
  • Guna Svence, Teacher Training and Education Management academy
    profesore, pētniece


Bajgar, J., Chiarrochi, J., Lane, R., & Deane, F.P. (2005). Development of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C). British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 569-586.

Barnes, S. (2013). Peer Relationships, Protective Factors, and Social Skill Development in Low-Income Children. Online publication. New York University Steinhardt, Department of Applied Psychology. Iegūts internetā 2014. gada 02. janvārī

Baron-Cohen, S., Golan, O., Wheelwright, S., Grander, Y., & Hill, J. (2010). Emotion word comprehension from 4-16 years old: A developmental survey. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 2, 109.

Beck, L., Kumschick, I.R., Eid, M., & Klann – Delius, G. (2011). Relationship Between Language Competence and Emotional Competence in Middle Childhood. Emotion. 12(3), 503-14.

Durand, K., Gallay, M., Seigneuric, A., Robichon, F., & Baudouin, J.Y. (2007). The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97, 14-27.

Ciarrochi, J., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J.D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1477–1490.

Charlesworth, L., Wood, J., & Viggiani, P. (2011). Middle Childhood. In E.D. Hutchison (Ed.). Dimensions of Human Behavior. The Changing Life Course (4th ed., pp. 182-198). USA: SAGE Publications.

DeAngelis, T. (2010). Social awareness and emotional skills equal successful kids. Monitor on Psychology, 41 (4), 46-49.

Dodge, K.A., Lansford, J.E., Burks, V.S., Bates, J.E., Pettit, G.S., Fontaine, R., & Price, J.M. (2003). Peer rejection and social information-processing factors in the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Child Development, 74(2), 374-93.

Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., Schellinger, K. (2011). The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Development, 82 (1), 405–432.

Ferrando, M., Prieto, M.D., Almeida, L.S., Ferrándiz, C., Bermejo, R., López-Pina, J.A., Hernández, D., Sáinz, M., & Fernández, M.C. (2011). Trait Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance: Controlling for the Effects of IQ, Personality, and Self-Concept. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29,(2), 150-159.

Freeland, E.M. (2007). A Comparison of emotional intelligence and personality factors: two concepts or one? A Dissertation. University of Oklahoma Graduate College.

Harper, E. (2010). Bibliotherapy Intervention and Level of Emotional Awareness Among Students with Emotional and Bihavioral Disorders. Electronic Thesis of Dissertation. Iegūts internetā 2014. gada 27. Septembrī

Hoglund, W.L.G., Lalonde, C.E., & Leadbeater, B.J. (2008). Social – Cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood. Social Development, 17 (3), 528-553.

Izard, C.E. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12(1),18-23.

Izard, C.E., Fine, S.E., Schultz, D., Mostow, A.J., Ackerman, B.P., & Youngstrom, E.A. (2001). Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychological Science, 12(1), 18–23.

Izard, C.E, King, K.A, Trentacosta, C.J, Morgan, J.K, Laurenceau, J.P, Krauthamer-Ewing, E.S, Finlon, K.J. (2008). Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Development and Psycholpathology, 20(1), 369-97.

Mahasneh, A.M.M. (2013). Investigation Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits Among Sample of Jordanian University Students. Cross-Cultural Communication, 9(6), 82-86.

Mancini, G., Agnoli, S., Trombini, E., Baldaro, B., & Surcinelli, P. (2013). Predictors of Emotional Awareness During Childhood. Health, 5(3), 375-380.

Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K.V., & Sangareau, Y. (2009). Exploring the relationships between trait emotional intelligence and objective socio – emotional outcomes in childhood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 259-272.

Morgan, J.K., Izard, C.E., & King, K.A. (2010). Construct Validity of the Emotion Matching Task: Preliminary Evidence for Convergent and Criterion Validity of a New Emotion Knowledge Measure for Young Children. Social Development, 19(1), 52–70.

Petrides, K.V., Sangareau, Y., Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2006). Trait Emotional Intelligence and Children's Peer Relations at School. Social Development, 15 (3), 537–547.

Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M.M., Petrides, K.V., Cowan, R., Miers, A.C., & Tolland, A. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 95-105.

Russo, P.M., Mancini, G., Trombini, E., Baldaro, B., Mavroveli, S., & and Petrides, K.V. (2012). Trait Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five: A study on Italian Children and Preadolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 30(3), 274–283.

Stuhlman, M., & Pianta, R. (2009). Profiles of educational quality in first grade. The Elementary School Journal, 109(4), 323-342.

Trentacosta, C.J. & Fine, S.F. (2010). Emotion Knowledge, Social Competence, and Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Social Development, 19(1), 1–29.

Veirman, E., Brouwers, S.A., & Fontaine, J.R.J. (2011). The Assessment for Emotional Awareness in Children. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 265-273.

Vernon, P.A., Villani, V.C., Aitken Schermer, J., & 2 Petrides, K.V. (2008). Phenotypic and Genetic Associations Between the Big Five and Trait Emotional Intelligence. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11(5), 524–530.

Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R.P., Wang, M.C., & Walberg, H.J. (2004). Building academical success on social and emotional learning: What does the research says? New York: Teachers College Press.