• Ramune Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene Vytautas Magnus University (LT)
  • Vilma Zydziunaite Vytautas Magnus University (LT)



comparison, dimension, informal learning, literature review


The definition of “informal learning” is ambiguous and thus distinguished by the diverse interpretations. The article aims to reveal identical learning dimensions (process, activity, context, interactions and outcomes), which set up different concepts of “informal learning”. The research question refers to the content of dimensions for distinct concepts of “informal learning”. The analysis has disclosed the “informal learning” to be continuum between “self-directed learning”, “self-regulated learning”, “self-managed learning”, “experiential learning”, “incidental/accidental learning”, “situated learning”, “learning through socialization” or “tacit learning”. Those diverse types of “informal learning” supplement each other rather than compete against. Learning intention, process and context setting might be manifested in distinct degrees, however, “informal learning” may refer to the construct covering learning forms, activities and acquired learning outcomes supplementing each other.



Download data is not yet available.


Carliner, S. (2013). How Have Concepts of Informal Learning Developed Over Time? Performance Improvement, 52(3), 5-11.

Chaiklin, S., & Lave, J. (1993). Understanding practice. Perspectives on Activity and Context. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cunningham, I. (2010). Learning to Lead – Self-Managed Learning and How Academics Resist Understanding the Processes. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 24(2), 4-6.

Gola, G. (2009). Informal Learning of Social Workers: A Method of Narrative Inquiry. Journal of Workplace Learning, 21(4), 334-346.

Golding, B., Brown, M., & Foley, A. (2009). Informal Learning: a Discussion Around Defining and Researching its Breadth and Importance. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 49(1), 35-56.

Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Boshuizen, H., & Van de Weil, M. (2010). The Challenge of Self-Directed and Self-Regulated Learning in Vocational Education: A Theoretical Analysis and Synthesis of Requirements. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 62(4), 415-440.

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2008). Experiential Learning Theory: A Dynamic, Holistic Approach to Management Learning, Education and Development. In: Armstrong, S. J., Fukami, C. (Eds.) Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development. London: Sage Publications.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Lin, Y.-M., & Lee, P.-Ch. (2014). Informal Learning: Theory and Applied. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 3(5), 127-134.

Livingstone, D. W. (2002). Mapping the Iceberg. NALL Working Paper, 54.

Livingstone, D. W., & Sawchuk, P. H. (2005). Hidden Knowledge: Working-Class Capacity in the „Knowledge Based Economy“. Studies in the Education of Adults, 37(2), 110-123.

Loyens, S. M. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, R. M. J. P. (2008). Self-Directed Learning in Problem-Based Learning and Its Relationships with Self-Regulated Learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 411-427.

Marsick, V. J. (2009). Toward a Unifying Framework to Support Informal Learning Theory, Research and Practice. Journal of Workplace Learning, 21(4), 265-275.

Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (2001). Informal and Incidental Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 25-34.

Marsick, V. J., Watkins, K. E., Callahan, M. W., & Volpe, M. (2006). Reviewing Theory and Research on Informal and Incidental Learning. Available at: Accessed on 23 September 2015.

McConnell, I. M. (2013). “You Never Stop Learning”: Informal and Incidental Workplace Learning and Women City Managers’ Career Development. Dissertation of Philosophy, Georgia: University of Georgia.

Morgan, S. E. (2013). Self-Regulation and Cultural Orientation on the Academic Achievement of University Students on Distance Education I Kampala, Uganda. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2(4), 1-8.

Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). Student Motivation and Self-Regulated learning in the College Classroom. In Smart, J. C., Tierney, W. G. (Eds.) Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. New York: Agathon Press.

Schugurensky, D. (2000). The Forms of Informal Learning: Towards a Conceptualization of the Field. WALL Working Paper, 19.

Straka, G. A. (2004). Informal Learning: Genealogy, Concepts, Antagonism and Questions. Bremen: University of Bremen.

Tough, A. (2002). The Iceberg of Informal Adult Learning. NALL Working Paper # 49 – 2002. Available at: Accessed on 28 September 2015.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.




How to Cite

Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, R., & Zydziunaite, V. (2016). CONSIDERATIONS ON INFORMAL LEARNING: DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AND THEIR DIMENSIONS. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 4, 13-23.