• Agnė Brandisauskienė Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (LT)



gifted, deep and surface learning


The article aims at revealing the links of gifted pupils’ learning. Seeking to achieve the aim, a qualitative research, which involved 13 gifted learners of the first-second grades in secondary school, and quantitative research in learning environment have been conducted. The quantitative research was carried out employing What is Happening in the Classroom Questionnaire to survey gifted pupils (334 pupils). The research findings allow maintaining that gifted surface learning is more characteristic of gifted learning than deep learning, whereas the essence of learning compliant with the level of their abilities, interests and inclinations, is often unspecified. The learners with exceptional intellectual abilities tend to learn by using the techniques of memorisation; therefore, learning is rarely related to positive experiences. Moreover, the pupils’ inclination to surface learning is confirmed by the research into class environment: the majority of high school learners claim that they rarely discuss, express their opinion, ask questions or provide explanations of problem-solving in the classroom, i.e. they miss opportunities to actively construct own learning in the process of education.


Download data is not yet available.


Akyol, Z., Garrison, D. R. (2011). Understanding cognitive presence in an online and blended community of inquiry: Assessing outcomes and processes for deep approaches to learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42, 233-250.

Aldrige, J. M., Fraser, B. J. (1997). Examining Science Classroom Environments in a Cross-National Study. Proceedings Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Forum 1997. Retrieved from:

Beattie, V., Collins, B., Mcinnes, B. (1997). Deep and surface learning: a simple or simplistic dichotomy? Accounting Education, 6(1), 1-12.

Biggs, J. B., Kember, D., & Leung, D.Y. P. (2001). The Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 133-149.

Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2), 77-101.

Brown, S., White, S., Wakeling, L., Naiker, M. (2015). Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) in an Introductory Course in Chemistry. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 12(3).

Dukynaitė, R., Stundža, M. (2016a). Tarptautinis matematikos ir gamtos mokslų tyrimas TIMSS 2015. Rezultatų pristatymas. Retrieved from:

Dukynaitė, R., Stundža, M. (2016b). EBPO PISA rezultatų pristatymas. Retrieved from:

Entwistle, N. (2000a). Contrasting Perspectives on Learning. In F. Marton, D. Houn­sell, N. Entwistle (Eds.). The Experience of Learning: Implications for Teaching and Studying in Higher Education (3 nd ed., pp. 3–22). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment.

Entwistle, N., Tait, H., McCune, V. (2000). Patterns of response to an approaches to studying inventory across contrasting groups and contexts. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XV (1), 33-48.

Garn, A., C., Jolly, J. L. (2014). High Ability Students’ Voice on Learning Motivation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 25(1), 7-24.

Howie, P., Bagnall, R. (2013). A critique of the deep and surface approaches to learning model. Teaching in Higher Education, 18 (4), 389-400.

Lietuva. Švietimas šalyje ir regionuose Mokinių pasiekimai (2016). Vilnius: Švietimo aprūpinimo centras. Retrieved from:

Pouliot, Ch., Bader, B., Therriault, G. (2010). The Notion of Relationship to Knowledge: a Theoretical Tool for Research in Science Education. International Journal of Envi­romental & Science Education, 5 (3), 239-264.

Renzulli, J. S. (2012). Reexamining the Role of Gifted Education and Talend Develo­pment: for the 21 st Century: a Four-part Teorical Approach. Gifted Child Quarterly, 56 (3), 150-159.

Samardzija, N., Peterson, J. S. (2015). Learning and Classroom Preferences of Gifted Eighth Graders: A Qualitative Study. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 38(3), 233-256.

Trigwell, K., Ashwin, P. Millan, E. S. (2013). Evoked prior learning experience and approach to learning as predictors of academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 363-378.

Zhang, L. F. (2000). University students‘ Learning Approaches in Three Cultures: An Investigation of Biggs‘s 3P Model. The Journal of Psychology, 134 (1), 37-55.

Wong, E., Kwong, T., Thadani, D. R. (2014). The Effects of Students’ Perceptions of their Learning Experience on their Approaches to Learning: The Learning Experience Inventory in Courses (LEI-C). Education Journal, 3 (6), 369-376.




How to Cite

Brandisauskienė, A. (2017). GIFTED PUPILS’ LEARNING LINKS. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 2, 37-48.