• Ēriks Kalvāns Rezekne Academy of Technologies (LV)



happiness, material assurance, social activity, gender, employment, education, religious activity, age


The aim of this scientific research article is the presentation of socio-demographic portraits of the happy and unhappy Latgale inhabitants.

A key concept of “happiness” is used in this publication. The theoretical interpretation of the happiness phenomenon is based on the findings of positive psychology, according to which happiness is defined as a life satisfaction and positive evaluation of his life and positive emotions over negative emotions.

As the research field Latgale region has been chosen because this is the region of Latvia with the lowest socio-economic development, which is considered one of the poorest regions in the European Union - so it acquires a special topicality of problem of happiness and its socially demographic aspects.

“Oxford happiness questionnaire”(Hills & Argyle, 2002) adapted by the author to Latvian culture and socio-demographic survey (Kalvāns, 2013), were used in the research paper. As a result of the research a general socio-demographic portrait of a Latgalian resident was created depending on the structure of happiness.


Download data is not yet available.


Adler, N. E., & Newman, K. (2002). Socioeconomic Disparities In Health: Pathways And Policies. Health Affairs, 21 (2), 60-76.

Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. London: Routledge.

Biswas - Diener, R., Diener, E. (2006). The subjective well – being of the homeless, and lessons for happiness. Accepted Social Indicators Research, 76, 185–205.

Blanchflower, D.G., Oswald, A.J. (2007). Is wellbeing U-shaped over the life-cycle? Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1733-1749.

Breiman, L., Friedman, J. H., Olshen, R. A., & Stone, C. J. (1984). Classification and regression trees. Monterey, CA: Wadsworth & Brooks.

Burns, R.A., Machin, M.A. (2010). Identifying gender differences in the independent effects of personality and psychological well-being on two broad affect components of subjective well-being. Personality and Individidual Differences, 48, 22–27.

Campbell, A., Converse, P., Rodgers, W. (1976). The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage.

Cantril, H. (1965). The Pattern of Human Concerns. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Clark, A., Oswald, A.J. (1994). Unhappiness and Unemployment. The Economic Journal, 104, 648-659.

Centrālā statistikas pārvalde. (2017). Iekšzemes kopprodukts. Retrieved from kopprodukts-galvenie-raditaji-30248.html.

Diener, E., Biswas - Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? A review and guide to needed literature. Social Indicators Research, 57, 119 – 169.

Diener, E., Oishi, S., Lucas, R.E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 403-425.

Diener, E., Seligman, M. (2004). Beyond Money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1-31.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13, 81–84.

Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999), Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 2, 276 – 302.

Ellison, C.G., Boardman, J.D., Williams, D.R., Jackson, J.S. (2001). Religious involvement, stress, and mental health. Social Forces, 80, 215-249.

Eurobarometer.(2009). Survey On Poverty And Social Exclusion. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Evans, M.D.R., Kelley, J. (2004). Effect of Family Structure on Life Satisfaction: Australian Evidence. Social indicators research, 69 (3), 303 - 353.

Galati, D., & Sotgiu, I. (2004). Happiness and Positive Emotions. In: A. Delle Fave (Ed.). Positive Psychology. Special issue of Ricerche di Psicologia, 1, 41-62.

Hills, P., Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073–1082.

Kahneman, D., Diener, E., Schwarz, N. (2003). Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. Russell Sage Foundation Publications.

Kalvāns, Ē. (2013). Latgales iedzīvotaju laimes izjūta un psiholoģiskās labklajības saturs. Promocijas darbs. Daugavpils Universitāte.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 280-287.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.

Ming - Liu, W., Iwamoto, D.K., Chae, M.H (Eds.) (2010). Culturally Responsive Counseling with Asian American Men.New York: Routledge.

Peters, A., Liefbroer, A. (1997). Beyond Marital Status: Partner History and Well-Being in Old Age. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(3), 63-77.

Ross, C.E., Van Willigen, M. (1997). Education and the Subjective Quality of Life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 275-297.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Free Press.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic Happiness.New York: Free Press.

Starck, F., Argyle, M., Schwarz, N. (1999). Subjective well-being an interdisciplinary perspective. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Svence, G. (2009). Pozitīvā psiholoģija. Apgāds Zvaigzne ABC.

Uchino, B.N, Cacioppo, J.T, Kiecolt – Glaser, J.K (2016). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: a review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychologycal Bulletin, 311, 481–510.

Wood, A.M., Joseph, S., Malthy, J. (2009). Gratitude predicts psychological well - being above the Big Five facets.Personality & Individual Differences, 46 (4), 443-447.




How to Cite

Kalvāns, Ēriks. (2018). SOCIALLY DEMOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT OF A HAPPY AND UNHAPPY RESIDENT OF LATGALE. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 7, 84-94.