• Viktor Koshmak Pskov State University
  • Aleksandr Hvatcev Pskov State University
  • Ina Astahova Pskov State University
  • Aleksandr Zuev Pskov State University



t-test, independent samples, paired samples, SPSS


Testing samples distinction is necessary in a wide range of practical tasks. Medicine, sociology, psychology, marketing - this is a short list of industries where it is required to conduct tests that establish effectiveness or inefficiency of a certain technology.

Diversity of situations and techniques applied to sample distinction create a problem for compliance of testing procedures. The problem rises for tests including large and small samples (dependent or independent) with various distributions. The article proposes a list of problems created by testing differences between two samples. Limits of applicability of parametric and non-parametric tests are established based on selected distribution. Informative examples are included based on simulated data.

SPSS software was used for sample distinction tests. It is important to double-check the operation of the machine computing procedure "manually” to understand the nature of tests and in educational purposes. The article provides mathematical illustration for the algorithms used, which can be considered as supplementary information for SPSS help.


Author Biographies

  • Viktor Koshmak, Pskov State University
    High Mathematics, docent
  • Aleksandr Hvatcev, Pskov State University
    High Mathematics, professor
  • Ina Astahova, Pskov State University
    High Mathematics, docent
  • Aleksandr Zuev, Pskov State University
    High Mathematics, docent


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