• Maija Ročāne Liepaja University
  • Alīda Samuseviča Liepaja University



components of self-directed learning, debating, self-directed learning, students


Nowadays methods promoting self-directed learning have become essential as thinking processes, deep understanding and an independent desire to explore and research the learning content gain importance. One of these methods is debating, which provides students the opportunity not only to be aware of topical problems in science and society, but also to understand the significance of them in their personal lives. The analysis of the survey show that for students with experience in debating, goal achievement is greatly influenced by individual interest and motivation, while for students without debating experience teacher's positive attitude is more important than personal interest and motivation to learn.


Author Biography

  • Maija Ročāne, Liepaja University
    PhD student


Bondarevskaja, E. (2000). Teorija i praktika lichnostno-orientirovannogo obrazovanija. Rostov-na-Donu: Bulat.

Borg, M. (2001). Key concepts in ELT: Teachers’ beliefs. In: ELT Journal, 55(2), 186-188.

Brookfiel, S. & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Buckley, W. (1967). Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. New-Jersey: Prentice-Hall; 1st Edition.

Dam, L. (1995). Learner autonomy 3 - From theory to classrom practice. Dublin: Authentic Language Learning Resources Ltd.

Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Classical definitionsand new directions. In Contemporary Psychology, 25, 54-67.

Edwards, A.L. (1957). Techniques of attitude scale construction. New-York: Appletion-Century-Crofts.

Eurostat. (2016). Classification of learning activities. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Fink, L.D. (2013). Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. San Francisko: John Wiley & Sons Jossey Bass.

Grow, G.O. (1991). Teaching learners to be self-directed. In Adult education quarterly. Volume 41, 4, 125-149.

Harackiewicz, J., & Hulleman, C. (2010). The Importance of Interest: The Role ofAchievement Goals and Task Values in Promoting the Development of Interest. In: Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 1, 42-52.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning. New York: Routledge.

Knowles, M.S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Association Press.

Markova, A. (1983). Formation of learning motivation in school age: a Handbook for teachers. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.

Marlowe, B., & Page, M. (1997). Creating and Sustaining the Constructivist Classroom. California: Corwi.

Maslo, I. (2015). Izaicinājumi un iespējas 18-24-gadīgo jauniešu priekšlaicīgas mācību pārtraukšanas prevencijai. Rīga: Valsts izglītības attīstības aģentūra, Latvijas Universitāte, Pedagoģijas, psiholoģijas un mākslas fakultātes Pedagoģijas zinātniskais institūts. Retrieved from

Maslow, A.H.(1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Bros.

Naylor, S. & Keogh, B. (1999). Constructivism in Classroom: Theory into Practise. In Journal of Science Teacher Education, 10, 93-106. DOI:

OECD. (2016). Low-Performing Students: Why They Fall Behind and How To Help Them Succeed. PISA. Paris: OECD publishing.

Oliņa, Z., Namsone, D., & France, I. (2018). Kompetence kā komplekss skolēna mācīšanās rezultāts. In Mācīšanās lietpratībai (18-43). Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds.

Pietersen, G.W. (2010). Strategic Learning: How to Be Smarter Than Your Competition and Turn Key Insights into Competitive Advantage. New Jersey: John Willey & Sons.

Savin-Baden, M. & Major, C.H. (2004). Foundations of Problem-Based Learning. Berkshire: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.

Schmidt, H.G. (2000). Assumptions underlying self-directed learning may be false. Medical Education, 34, 243–245.

Shhukina, G. (1988). Pedagogicheskie problemy formirovanija poznavatel'nyh interesov. Moskva: Pedagogika.

Valsts Izglītības satura centrs. (2017). Izglītība mūsdienīgai lietpratībai: mācību satura un pieejas apraksts. Rīga. Retrieved from

Weinert, F.E. (2001). Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In: D. S. Rychen & L. H. Salganik (Ed.), Defining and selecting key competencies (45-65). Ashland: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Wray-Lake, L. & Syvertsen, A. (2011). The Developmental Roots of Social Responsibility in Childhood and Adolescence. In Youth development: Work at the cutting edge, 134, 11-25. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Zimmerman, B.J. (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning andacademic achievement: An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Ed.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. (1-37). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.