• Valērijs Makarevičs Daugavpils University
  • Dzintra Iliško Daugavpils University
  • Jūlija Tolmačova Daugavpils University



tolerance, high school students, self-esteem, friends, strangers


The issue of tolerance has been actively discussed in psychology. Psychological science has to solve a number of important methodological problems related to the etiology of this term. Adolescence is the time then one’s identity is being formed. This can be assumed by the authors that the pupils with a positive identity are more tolerant towards "others." The hypothesis of the study: Positive attitude influence the perception of “tolerant” schoolchildren by the “other” to a greater extent. The perception of the “other” by “intolerant” schoolchildren is more subject to negative stereotyping. For the purpose of the study, a methodology for measuring tolerance was developed. It included scales of measuring interpersonal and intergroup tolerance. In addition, expert teachers avaluation of pupils were used. Based on their assessments, two groups of pupils were formed. One of them experts rated as “good” pupils. They received higher marks on the tolerance scale. The second group of pupils, according to the experts’ evaluation, had serious problems with discipline at school. They received low marks on the tolerance scale. This group of pupils was called "hooligans." The results of the study indicate that tolerant students have no significant differences in the perception of “themselves” and “strangers.” The perception of “hooligans” shows a polarization effect: “they” are perceived only positively but "strangers".



Author Biographies

  • Valērijs Makarevičs, Daugavpils University
  • Dzintra Iliško, Daugavpils University
  • Jūlija Tolmačova, Daugavpils University
    Bachelor of Psychology


Banyukhova, A.E., & Rudykhina, O.V. (2007). The relationship of tolerance with personality traits and its boundaries. Tolerance and intolerance in modern society: discrimination. Materials of the International Scientific-Practical Conference. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 311-316.

Belasheva, I. & Petrova, N. (2016). Psychological stability of a personality and capability of tolerant interaction as diverse manifestations of tolerance International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(10), 3367-3384.

Brehm, C. (1998). Stereotypes, Tolerance, and the Classroom. Retrieved from: (17.12.2019).

Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Сhristie, D.J., Dawes, A. (2001). Tolerance and Solidarity. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 7(2), 131–142.

Ferrar, J. W. (1976). The dimensions of tolerance. The Pacific Sociological Review, 19(1), 63-81. Doi: 10.2307/1388742.

Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1951). Personality theory and perception. In R. Blake, & E. Ramsey (Eds.). Perception: An approach to personality. (23-34) New York: Ronald. Doi: 10.1037/11505-013.

Friedland N., Keinan G., & Tytiun T. (1999). The effect of psychological stress and tolerance of ambiguity on stereotypic attributions. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 12(4), 397–410. Doi: 10.1080/10615809908249318.

Furnham, A., & Ribchester, T. (1995). Tolerance of ambiguity: A review of the concept, its measurement and applications. Current Psychology, 14, 179-199. Doi: 10.1007/BF02686907.

Furnham, A., & Marks, J. (2013). Tolerance of Ambiguity: A Review of the Recent Literature. Psychology, 4(9), 717-728. Retrieved from: (10.11.2019).

Golebowska, E. (1999). Gender gap in political tolerance. Political Behavior, 25(1), 43-66.

Kelly, G.A. (1991). The Psychology of Personal Constructs. A theory of personality. London: Routledge.

Kozhukhar, G. (2013). Basic assumptions as predictors of interpersonal tolerance and ethnic identity in psychology. The 5th Congress of Russian Psychological Society. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 86, 511 – 517.

La Barbera, F. (2015). Research reports educating to tolerance: Effects of communicating social psychology. Research findings. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 11(3), 476–483. Doi: 10.5964/ejop.v11i3.888.

Linoa, M., Hashimb, I., & Ricardoc, R. (2017) The Conceptualization and operationalization of cultural tolerance: Adopting positive psychology perspective. Social Sciences Postgraduate International Seminar (SSPIS) 2017. School of Social Sciences, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, 213-220.

Makarevičs, V., & Dombrovskis, V. (2006). Migration und tolerance. Migration in Europa: Soziologische und psihologische forschungen, Kiev, 159-176.

Makarevich,V. (2001). Tolerance as a psichological problem. Tolerance un citas psiholoģidkās un pedagoģiskās problēmas. Daugavpils: Saule, 29-38.

Makarevičs, V., & Iliško, Dz. (2019). Governance of informal learning as a pathway for the development of young adults' agency for sustainability. In Calvo de Mora, J., & Kerry J. Kennedy (Eds.). Schools and informal learning in a knowledge-based world. Routledge: Taylor and Francis. Doi:

Makaryev, I. S. (2009) Intolerance as a form of manifestation of a teenager’s personality deformation. Tolerance and intolerance in modern society. Materials of the International Scientific-Practical Conference. (327-334) Saint Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 327-334.

McLain, D. L. (1993). The MSTAT-I: A new measure of an individual’s tolerance for ambiguity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 183-189. Doi: 10.1177/0013164493053001020

Moreno-Riaño, G. (2006). Tolerance, identity, and the problem of citizenship. Tolerance in the twenty - first century: Prospect and challenges (81-96). Gerson Moreno-Riaño (Ed.). London: Lexington books.

Rapp, C. (2015). More diversity, less tolerance? The effect of type of cultural diversity on the erosion of tolerance in Swiss municipalities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38 (10), 1779-1797.

RJackman, M. (1977). Prejudice, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnic groups. Social Science Research, 6 (2), 145-169.

Stepan, A. and Taylor, C. (Ed.). Boundaries of Toleration. New York: Columbia University Press.

Scanlon, T. M. (2003). The Difficulty of Tolerance. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige.

Sherif, M. (1967). Social Interaction: Process and Products. New York. Routledge.

Van Doorn, M. (2012). Tolerance. Retrieved from: (10.12.2918).

Vogt, W.P. (1997) Tolerance and Education: Learning to Live with Diversity and Difference. London: Sage.

Witenberg, R.T. (2019). Psychology of Tolerance. Conception and Development. Springer, Verlag.