• Baiba Kalnciema University of Latvia
  • Guna Svence University or Latvia



mindfulness, MBCT-C (ABKT-B), emotional regulation, school anxiety, early adolescence


The purpose of this study was to adapt the experimental programme MBCT-C (Randy J. Semple & Jennifer Lee’s programme “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Anxious Children”, 2011) in early adolescents and compare the changes in school anxiety and emotional regulation indicators before and after in the experimental and control group. The necessity for intervention with respect to school anxiety and emotional regulation among children with emotional regulation and school anxiety issues in the early adolescence group was indicated by research into problems connected with youth behaviour and difficulties in regulating emotions. The study analysed the results of six 6th grade students (12-13 years old) using the following instruments: The Emotion Questionnaire (Rydell, Berlin, & Bohlin, 2003, adapted by Grīvza, Brūdere-Ruska, & Raikova, 2014); the School Anxiety Questionnaire (Beeman N. Phillips, 1970, translated by Zalcmane, 2004), the Parent Evaluation Questionnaire (Semple & Lee, 2011) and the Children Evaluation Questionnaire (Semple & Lee, 2011) that have been used in research as assessment instruments. Testing was performed in two stages: before intervention and after 12 intervention sessions. The experimental group showed an improvement in all school anxiety results compared to the control group, but the school anxiety results of control group pupils deteriorated. Emotional regulation indicators for both groups decreased, but the main impact of the experiment was demonstrating that after 12 intervention sessions the level of school anxiety dropped, while scores related to emotional awareness compared to the control group increased.


Author Biographies

  • Baiba Kalnciema, University of Latvia
    Departament of Psychology in University of Latvia
  • Guna Svence, University or Latvia
    Professor at University of Latvia. The field of research - psychology.


Abramova, G.(2003). Prakticeskaja psihologija. Moskva: Akadem Projekt.

Baer, R.A., Fischer, S., & Huss, D.B. (2005). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy applied to binge eating: A case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 351-358.

Bajgar, J., Chiarrochi, J., Lane, R., & Deane, F.P. (2005). Development of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C). British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 569-586.

Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. NY: International Universities Press.

Blair, B.L., Perry, N.B., O’Brein, M., Calkins, S.D., Keane, S.P., Shanahan, L. (2015). Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 8, 1062-1073.

Chang, J. & Hiebert, B. (1989). Relaxation procedures with children: A review. Medical Psychotherapy, 2, 163-176.

Dacey, J.S. & Fiore, L.B. (2000). Your anxious child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Daleiden, E.L., & Vasey, M.W. (1997). An information-processing perspective on childhood anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 407-429.

De Silva, P. (1985). Early Buddhist and modern behavioral strategies for the control of unwanted intrusive cognitions. Psychology Record, 35, 437-443.

Eisendrath, S.J., Delucchi, K., Bitner, R., Fenimore, P., Smit, M., & McLane, M. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for treatment-resistant depression: A pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 319-320.

Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., & Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 716-721.

Finucane, A., & Mercer, S.W. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry, 6.

Fish, M.C. (1988). Relaxation training for childhood disorders. In C.E. Schaefer (Ed), Innovative interventions in child and adolescent therapy (160-192). NY: Wiley.

Flook, L., Smalley, S.L., Kitil, M.J., Galla, B.M. Kaiser, Greenland, S., Locke, J., Ishijima, E., & Kasari, C. (2015). Effects of Mindful Awareness Practices on Executive Functions in Elementary School Children. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26 (1), 70-95.

Gross, J.J., & Thompson R.A. (2006). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In: Handbook of emotion regulation. Ed. By J. Gross. New York.

Hartas, D. (2011). The ecology of young children’s behaviour and social competence; child characteristics, socio-economic factors and parenting. Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 37, No.6, December 2011, 763-783.

Heidenreich, T., Tuin, I., Pflug, B., Michal, M., & Michalak, J. (2006). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for persistent insomnia: A pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75, 188-189.

Humphrey, J.H. (1988). Teaching children to relax. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation for everyday life. New York: Hyperion.

Kaslow, N.J., & Racusin, G.R. (1994). Family therapy for depression in young people. In W.M.Reynolds & H.F.Johnston (Eds.), Issues in clinical child psychology. Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (345-363). New York, NY, US: Plenum Press.

Kenny, M.A., & Williams, J.M.G. (2007). Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 617-625.

Kingston, T., Dooley, B., Bates, A., Lawlor, E., & Malone, K. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80, 193-203.

Klatt, M., Harpster, K., Browne, E., White, S. & Case-Smith, J. (2013). Feasibility and preliminary outcomes for Move-Into-Learning: An arts-based mindfulness classroom intervention, The Journal of Positive Psychology.

Krohne, H.W. (2003). Individual differences in emotional reactions and coping. In: Handbook of affective sciences. Ed. By R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, H. H. Goldsmith. New York: Oxford University Press, 698-725.

Kuyken, W., Byford, S., Taylor, R. S., Holden, E., Barrett, B., Evans, A., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 966-978.

Landy S. (2009). Pathways to Competence. Encouraging Healthy Social and Emotional Development in Young Children. Paul H. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, Maryland.

Lane, R.D. (2000). Levels of Emotional Awareness: Neurobiological, psychological and social perspectives. In R.Bar-On & J.Parker (Eds.). Handbook of emotional intelligence. Theory, development, assessment and application at home, school, and in the workplace (171-191). San Francisko: Jossey Bass.

Linden, W. (1973). Practicing of meditation by school children and their levels of field dependence-independence, anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41.

Ma, H.S., & Teasdale, J.D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 31-40.

Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K.V., & Sangareau, Y. (2009). Exploring the relationships between trait emotional intelligence and objective socio-emotional outcomes in childhood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79.

Napoli, M., Krech, P.R. & Holley, Lc.C. (2005). Mindfulness Training for Elementary School Students. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21.

Ree, M.J., & Craigie, M.A. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behaviour Change, 24, 70-86.

Rozman, D. (1976). Meditating with children: A workbook on new age educational methods using meditation. Boulder Creek, CA: U Trees Press.

Rydell, A.M., Berlin, L., & Bohlin, G. (2003). Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and Adaptation Children. Emotion. 3, No. 1, 30-47.

Schonert-Reichl, K.A. & Lawlor, M.S. (2010). The Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Education Program on Pre- and Early Adolescents’ Well-Being and Social and Emotional Competence. Mindfulness, 1, 137-151.

Semple, R.J., Reid, E.F.G. & Miller, L.F. (2005). Treating anxiety with mindfulness: An open trial of mindfulness training for anxious children. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19, 387-400.

Semple, R.J., & Lee, J. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for anxious children: A manual for treating childhood anxiety. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

Semple, R. J., Lee, J., & Miller, L. (2006). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children. In R.Baer (Ed.). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (143–166). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

Southam-Gerow, M.A., & Kendall, P.C. (2000). A preliminary study of the emotion understanding of youths referred for treatment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 319-327.

Spielberger, C.D., Vagg, P. (1995). Test Anxiety: a transactional process model. In: C.D.Spielberger, P.Vagg (eds.). Test Anxiety. Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Škuškovnika, D., Tiltiņa-Kapele, I., & Dudkina, A. (2014). Trauksme un agresija. Korekcijas iespējas. Zinātne.

Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Willams, J.M.G., Redgeway, V.A., Soulsby, J.M., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79.

Trentacosta, C.J., Izard, C.E., Mostow, A.J., & Fine, S.E. (2006). Children’s Emotion and Attentional Competence in Early Elementary School. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, No. 2, 2006, pp. 148-170.

Williams, J.M.G., Alatiq, Y., Crane, C., Barhofer, T., Fennell, M.J.V., Duggan, D.S., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in bipolar disorder: Preliminary evaluation of immediate effects on between-episode functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders, 107, 275-279.

Willams, J.M.G., Duggan, D.S., Crane, C., & Fennell, M.J.V. (2006). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behaviour. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 201-210.

Willams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., & Soulsby, J. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces overgeneral autobiographical memory in formerly depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109.

Yook, K., Lee, S.-H., Ryu, M., Kim, K.-H., Choi, T. K., et al. (2008). Usefulness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for treating insomnia in patients with anxiety disorders: A pilot study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 501-503.

Zylowska L, Ackermann DL, Yang MH, Futrell JL, Horton NL, Hale S, et al. (2007). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD. A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders.