BACKSTROKE TEACHING METHODS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN WITH RESIDUAL PRIMITIVE REFLEXES

Authors

  • Irina Bogdanoviča Latvian Academy of Sport Education
  • Viesturs Lāriņš Latvian Academy of Sport Education

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2021vol4.6256

Keywords:

backstroke teaching methods, primitive reflexes

Abstract

There are studies suggesting that primitive reflexes can remain active in healthy children. Formal backstroke teaching is a part of many aquatic curriculum program.  Even though the links with a problem during swimming learning with retained primitive reflexes were mentioned, there are no studies about effect of different backstroke teaching methods in healthy children with residual primitive reflexes. Aim of the study is to define the effect of teaching methods for backstroke in healthy children with residual primitive reflexes. Subjects:  6-7 years old healthy children with residual primitive reflexes. Methods: A part practice backstroke teaching method for the first group (12 children) has been focused on teaching of separate components (leg kicks, arm pulls, and breathing) before fitting them together, while another 12 participants in second group learnt backstroke separate components of arm-to-leg integration before combining them together inside of cycle. After 12 weeks of practice backstroke proficiency and heart rate during maximal continuous backstroke swimming were analyzed. The obtained results show significant differences between the two groups. The results of the second group are linked with better backstroke proficiency, significantly longer swimming distance and lower heart rate during swimming.

 

References

Adolph, K. E., Vereijken, B., & Denny, M. A. (1998). Learning to crawl. Child development, 69(5), 1299–1312.

Ardila, A., Rosselli, M., Matute, E., & Inozemtseva, O. (2011). Gender differences in cognitive development. Developmental psychology, 47(4), 984–990. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023819

Bilbilaj, S., Gjipali, A., & Shkurti, F. (2017). Measuring Primitive Reflexes in Children with Learning Disorders. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(5), 285-298. ISSN 2414-8385

Blanksby, B. A., Parker, H. E., Bradley, S., & Ong, V. (1995). Children’s readiness for learning front crawl swimming. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 27(2), 34–37.

Blythe, S. G. (2009). Attention, Balance and Coordination: The A.B.C. of Learning Success. Wiley-Blackwell.

Blythe, S. G. (2011). Neuro-motor maturity as an indicator of developmental readiness for education. TAC Journal, 4(12), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.novreflextherapie.nl/pdf-bestanden/bibliotheek-neuro-motor.pdf

Bruijn, S. M., Massaad, F., Maclellan, M. J., Van Gestel, L., Ivanenko, Y. P., & Duysens, J. (2013). Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults? Neuroscience letters, 556, 89–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.028

Chen, J., & Woollacott, M. H. (2007). Lower extremity kinetics for balance control in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of motor behavior, 39(4), 306–316. https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.4.306-316

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Invernizzi, P. L., Scurati, R., Roione, G. C., & Michielon, G. (2006). Swimming and training: Comparison between heuristic and prescriptive learning. Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X, 6(2), 227-229.

Fleming, S., Thompson, M., Stevens, R., Heneghan, C., Plüddemann, A., Maconochie, I., Tarassenko, L., & Mant, D. (2011). Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years of age: a systematic review of observational studies. Lancet (London, England), 377(9770), 1011–1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62226-X

Fontana, F. E., Mazzardo, O., Furtado, O., Jr, & Gallagher, J. D. (2009). Whole and part practice: a meta-analysis. Perceptual and motor skills, 109(2), 517–530. https://doi.org/10.2466/PMS.109.2.517-530

Franklin, R. C., Peden, A. E., Hodges, S., Lloyd, N., Larsen, P., O'Connor, C., & Scarr, J. (2015). Learning to Swim: What Influences Success? International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 9(3), 220-240. DOI:10.25035/ijare.09.03.02

Geuze, R. H. (2003). Static balance and developmental coordination disorder. Human movement science, 22(4-5), 527–548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2003.09.008

Gieysztor, E. Z., Choińska, A. M., & Paprocka-Borowicz, M. (2018). Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated motor problems in healthy preschool children. Arch Med Sci, 14(1), 167–173. DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2016.60503

Gieysztor, E. Z., Sadowska, L., & Choińska, A. M. (2017). The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy preschool and early school age children. Pielęgniarstwo i Zdrowie Publiczne, 26(1), 5–11. Retrieved from ISSN 2082–9876 (print), ISSN 2451–1870 (online)

Gomez, A., & Sirigu, A. (2015). Developmental coordination disorder: core sensori-motor deficits, neurobiology and etiology. Neuropsychologia, 79(Pt B), 272–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.09.032

Hadders-Algra, M. (2005). Development of postural control during the first 18 months of life. Neural Plas, 12, 99–108.

Hadders-Algra, M. (2018). Early human motor development: From variation to the ability to vary and Adapt. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 90(7), 411–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.05.009

Huxhold, O., Li, S. C., Schmiedek, F., & Lindenberger, U. (2006). Dual-tasking postura control: aging and the effects of cognitive demand in conjunction with focus of attention. Brain research bulletin, 69(3), 294–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.01.002

Kerkman, J. N., Bekius, A., Boonstra, T. W., Daffertshofer, A., & Dominici, N. (2020). Muscle Synergies and Coherence Networks Reflect Different Modes of Coordination During Walking. Frontiers in physiology, 11, 751. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00751

Krzeszewska, P., & Mikołajewska, E. (2018). Coexistence of Preserved Primary Reflexes and Speech-Language Disorders in Children – State-of-the-Art. Logopedia, 47(1), 39-49.

Landi, S. M., Baguear, F., & Della-Maggiore, V. (2011). One week of motor adaptation induces structural changes in primary motor cortex that predict long-term memory one year later. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(33), 11808–11813. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2253-11.2011.

Langendorfer, S. J. (2007). The Developmental Perspective, the Swimming Reflex, and The Velveteen Rabbit. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1(2). DOI: 10.25035/ijare.01.02.01

Legrand, A., Mazars, K. D., Lazzareschi, J., Lemoine, C., Olivier, I., Barra, J., & Bucci, M. P. (2013). Differing effects of prosaccades and antisaccades on postural stability. Experimental brain research, 227(3), 397–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-013-3519-z

Lerda, R., Cardelli, C., & Coudereau, J. P. (2005). Backstroke organization in physical education students as a function of skill and sex. Perceptual and motor skills, 100(3 Pt 1), 779–790. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.3.779-790

Magill, R. A., & Anderson, D. (2016). Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Maglischo, E. (2003). Swimming fastest. Human Kinetics Champaign, Illinois, ISBN: 0736031804

Martínez-Sobrino, J., Veiga, S., & Navandar, A. (2017). Evaluation of arm-to-leg coordination in freestyle swimming. European Journal of Human Movement, 38, 27-39.

Mitra, S., Knight, A., & Munn, A. (2013). Divergent effects of cognitive load on quiet stance and task-linked postural coordination. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance, 39(2), 323–328. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030588

Muratori, L. M., Lamberg, E. M., Quinn, L., & Duff, S. V. (2013). Applying principles of motor learning and control to upper extremity rehabilitation. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists, 26(2), 94–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2012.12.007

Myer, G. D., Kushner, A. M., Brent, J. L., Schoenfeld, B. J., Hugentobler, J., Lloyd, R. S., Vermeil, A., Chu, D. A., Harbin, J., & McGill, S. M. (2014). The back squat: A proposed assessment of functional deficits and technical factors that limit performance. Strength and conditioning journal, 36(6), 4–27. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000103

Oh, S., Licari, M., Lay, B., & Blanksby, B. (2011). Effects of Teaching Methods on Swimming Skill Acquisition in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 5(4), 432-448. DOI: 10.25035/ijare.05.04.09

Patrick, S. K., Noah, J. A., & Yang, J. F. (2009). Interlimb coordination in human crawling reveals similarities in development and neural control with quadrupeds. Journal of neurophysiology, 101(2), 603–613. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.91125.2008

Pecuch, A., Gieysztor, E., Telenga, M., Wolańska, E., Kowal, M., & Paprocka-Borowicz, M. (2020). Primitive Reflex Activity in Relation to the Sensory Profile in Healthy Preschool Children. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(21), 8210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218210

Polimac, M., Vukadinovic, M., & Obradovic, J. (2013) Differences in motor abilities of children in relation to gender and age. Exercise and quality of life. 5(2), 28-33. UDC: 796.012.1-053.2

Revesz, L., Bognar, J., Salvara, M. I., Gita, S., & Biro, M. (2007). Curriculum Development for Teaching Swimming in Hungary. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1(2), 156-165. DOI: 10.25035/ijare.01.02.07

Riewald, S., & Rodeo,S. (2015). Science of swimming faster. Human Kinetics Champaign, IL, United States. ISBN13 9780736095716

Righetti, L., Nylén, A., Rosander, K., & Ijspeert, A. J. (2015). Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals. Frontiers in neurology, 6, 17. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00017

Roy, J. S., Moffet, H., & McFadyen, B. J. (2008). Upper limb motor strategies in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome across different speeds of movement. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 23(10), 1227–1236.

Schott, J. M., & Rossor, M. N. (2003). The grasp and other primitive reflexes. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 74(5), 558–560. https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/74/5/558

Sharma, A., Ford, S., & Calvert, J. (2014). Adaptation for life: a review of neonatal physiology. Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine, 15(3), 89–95. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpaic.2014.01.002

Sohn, M., Ahn, Y., Lee, S. (2011). Assessment of Primitive Reflexes in High-risk Newborns, J Clin Med Res, 3(6), 285-290.

Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., & Ragert, P. (2010). Dynamic Properties of Human Brain Structure: Learning- Related Changes in Cortical Areas and Associated Fiber Connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(35), 11670 –11677. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2567-10.2010

Toussaint, H. M., Van den Berg, C., & Beek, W. J. (2002). "Pumped-up propulsion" during front crawl swimming. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 34(2), 314–319. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00020

Walliman, N. (2011). Research methods: the basics. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-83607-3 Master e-book ISBN

Wann, J.P., Mon-Williams, M., & Rushtion, K. (1998). Postural control and coordination disorders: The swinging room revisited. Human Movement Science, 17, 491–513.

Wannier, T., Bastiaanse, C., Colombo, G., & Dietz, V. (2001). Arm to leg coordination in humans during walking, creeping and swimming activities. Experimental brain research, 141(3), 375–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210100875

Weerdesteyn, V., Laing, A. C., & Robinovitch, S. N. (2008). Automated postural responses are modified in a functional manner by instruction. Experimental brain research, 186(4), 571–580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-007-1260-1

Wilson, C., Simpson, S. E., van Emmerik, R. E., & Hamill, J. (2008). Coordination variability and skill development in expert triple jumpers. Sports biomechanics, 7(1), 2–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701682983

Wulf, G., & Shea, C.H. (2002). Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(2), 185-211. DOI: 10.3758/BF03196276

Zafeiriou, D. (2004). Primitive reflexes and postural reactions in the neurodevelopmental examination. Pediatr Neurol, 31(1), 1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2004.01.012

Zehr, E. P., Barss, T. S., Dragert, K., Frigon, A., Vasudevan, E. V., Haridas, C., Hundza, S., Kaupp, C., Klarner, T., Klimstra, M., Komiyama, T., Loadman, P. M., Mezzarane, R. A., Nakajima, T., Pearcey, G. E., & Sun, Y. (2016). Neuromechanical interactions between the limbs during human locomotion: an evolutionary perspective with translation to rehabilitation. Experimental brain research, 234(11), 3059–3081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4715-4

Downloads

Published

2021-05-28