• Danguole Razmaite Vilnius University Šiauliai Academy
  • Lauras Grajauskas Vilnius University Šiauliai Academy



motivation for sport, self-determination theory, swimming, teaching styles


The paper presents a research dealing with one of the most relevant problems in sports education science, the coach’s influence on young athletes’ motivation. The aim of the research is to investigate the correlations between manifestation of the teaching style applied by coaches and motivation of their athletes for sport. The research raises a hypothesis that the teaching styles applied by coaches may be related to the motivation for sport in the athletes being trained. The research is based on the provisions of reproductive and productive teaching methods as well as the self-determination theory. The research involved 14–18-year-old swimmers and their coaches. Two questionnaires have been employed: description of the teaching style (Curtner-Smith et al., 2001; Hein et al., 2012) and sport motivation scale (SMS–II; Pelletier et al., 2013). Referring to the responses in relation to manifestation of the teaching style, the coaches have been divided into three groups. The one factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to test the research hypothesis. The research hypothesis was proven only partly. It was found that application of different teaching styles may have had effect on young athletes’ external motivation only. It can be substantiated that the teaching style employed by swimming coaches and related both reproductive and reproductive teaching methods have no significant effect on young athletes’ intrinsic motivation for sport in the coaching practise.



Amorose, A. J., & Anderson-Butcher, D. (2015). Exploring the independent and interactive effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling coaching behaviors on adolescent athletes’ motivation for sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(3), 206–218.

Berkman, E. T., & Reise, S. P. (2011). A conceptual guide to statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles, London: Sage.

Chatoupis, C., & Vagenas, G. (2011) An analysis of Published Process Product Research on Physical Education Teaching Methods. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 23(1), 271–289.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Cuevas, R., García-López, L.M., & Serra-Olivares, J. (2016). Sport education model and self-determination theory: An intervention in secondary school children. Kinesiology, 48(1), 30–38.

Curtner-Smith, M.D., Todorovich, J.R., McCaughtry N. A., & Lacon, S.A. (2001). Urban teachers’ use of productive and reproductive teaching styles within the confines of the National Curriculum for Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 7, 177–190.

De Francisco, C., Arce, C., Sánchez-Romero, E. I., & del Pilar Vílchez, M. (2018). The mediating role of sport self-motivation between basic psychological needs satisfaction and athlete engagement. Psicothema, 30(4), 421–426.

Delrue, J., Soenens, B., Morbée, S., Vansteenkiste, M., & Haerens, L. (2019). Do athletes’ responses to coach autonomy support and control depend on the situation and athletes’ personal motivation? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43, 321–332.

Goldberger, M., Ashworth, S., & Byra, M. (2012). Spectrum of Teaching Styles Retrospective 2012. Quest, 64, 268–282.

Grajauskas, L., & Razmaitė, D. (2017). Lietuviškos Sporto motyvacijos skalės kai kurios psichometrinės charakteristikos. Sporto mokslas, 2(88), 10–15.

Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (Eds.). (2007). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics.

Hanif, A. S., & Mardesia, P. (2014). Teaching styles and motivation in learning breast stroke in swimming. Asian Social Science, 10(5), 2–6.

Hein, V., Ries, F., Pires, F., Caune, A., Ekler, J. H., Emeljanovas, A., & Valantiniene, I. (2012). The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11(1), 123–130.

Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M. S. (2012). Youth athletes’ perception of autonomy support from the coach, peer motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in sport setting: One-year effects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 257–262.

Karjane, K., & Hein, V. (2015). Controlling coaches’ behaviour, psychological need thwarting, motivation and results of the volleyball competitions. Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis, 21, 51–60.

Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach–athlete relationship: a motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 883–904.

Merono, L., Calderon, A., & Hastie, P. A. (2016). Effect of Sport Education on the technical learning and motivational climate of junior high performance swimmers. Ricyde: Revista internacional de ciencias del deporte. 44(12), 182–198.

Metzler, M. (2011). Instructional Models for Physical Education. Scottsdale: Holcomb Hathway.

Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). Teaching Physical Education. First online edition. Spectrum Institute for Teaching and Learning. United States.

Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). Validation of the revised sport motivation scale (SMS-II). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(3), 329–341.

Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M., Guertin, C., Hébert, C., & Sarrazin, P. (2017). French adaptation and validation of the Sport Motivation Scale-II (Echelle de Motivation dans les Sports-II). International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1–18.

Reynders, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Puyenbroeck, S., Aelterman, N., De Backer, M., Delrue, J., & Broek, G. V. (2019). Coaching the coach: Intervention effects on need-supportive coaching behavior and athlete motivation and engagement. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43, 288–300.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2007). Active human nature. Self-determination theory and the promotion and maintenance of sport, exercise, and health. In M. S. Hagger, N. L. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic Motivation and Selfdetermination in Exercise and Sport (pp. 1–19). Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2018). Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness (1st ed.): The Guilford Press.

Sicilia Camacho, A., & Brown, D.H.K. (2008). Revisiting the paradigm shift from the 'versus' to the 'non-versus' notion of Mosston’s Spectrum of teaching styles in physical education pedagogy: a critical pedagogical perspective. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 85–108.

Vallerand, R. J. (2007). A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for sport and physical activity. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 255–279). Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics.

Weinberg, M. D., & Gould, D. (2019). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (7th ed.). Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics.