• Ilona Zubrickienė Klaipėda University (LT)
  • Birutė Anužienė Klaipėda University (LT)




access, different social groups of adults, equal opportunities, non-formal adult education, social justice


Social justice in education is a research area aimed at providing equal opportunities for everybody to participate in the educational system. Research in the field of social justice rather focuses on formal education, in which the perception of the social justice concept depends on the attitude framed by the state – it is inseparable from the form of governance, the set of basic principles prevailing in society, as well as from the historical and cultural context. On the contrary, non-formal adult education, as a relatively convenient and most accessible form of adult education to upgrade or acquire new skills, involves occasional studies of these service providers in terms of social justice. It is also limited to the generalised perception of this phenomenon and, usually, to the contexts of its expression that are not always regulated by the state. Therefore, it is not clear how non-formal adult education addresses the problem of perceiving and expressing the concept of social justice, what role the state might play in ensuring social justice for adults in lifelong development and acquisition of new skills. The article raises the following problematic questions: How do adults perceive and experience social justice when participating in and engaging in non-formal adult education? How and in what ways does social justice exist in non-formal adult education? The aim of the article is to show the authentic experiences of study participants, by identifying the concept of social justice and expressions thereof in non-formal adult education. The results of the study demonstrate the controversy of the concept of social justice. This helped to confirm that there is no single definition of social justice that would be acceptable in all contexts of education. The following key forms of expression of social justice were pointed out by the study participants: equal opportunities, access, non-compliance of non-formal adult education services with participants’ learning needs, goals, and objectives. This has revealed a partial aspect of implementing social justice in non-formal adult education.



Download data is not yet available.


th Global Report on Adult Learning and education. Leave No One Behind: Participation, Equity and Inclusion (2019). UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000372274

An in-depth analysis of adult learning policies and their effectiveness in Europe (2015). European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c8c38dc9-89d0-11e5-b8b7-01aa75ed71a1/language-en

Fraser, N., & Bourdieu, P. (2007). (Mis)recognition, Social Inequality and Social Justice. Critical Realism Interventions. (T. Lovell ed.). London and New York: Routledge.

Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M., Klumbytė, N., Marcinkevičius, A., & Šliavaitė K. (2018). Socialinis ir istorinis teisingumas daugiaetninėje Lietuvos visuomenėje: sampratos, patirtys ir kontekstai. Monografija [Social and Historical Justice in the Multi-Ethnic Lithuanian Society: Concepts, Experiences and Contexts. Monograph]. Lietuvos socialinių tyrimų centras. Vilnius.

Iljina, O. (2014). Socialinis teisingumas Lietuvos mokyklose: grindžiamosios teorijos pagrindu [Social justice in Lithuanian schools: on the basis of underlying theory]. Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, 32, 133-146. Vilnius.

Jean Francois, E. (2014). Social Justice and Philosophies of Adult Education. The Meaning of Social Justice in Philosophy of Adult Education Theories. European Journal of Academic Essays, 1(6), 7-11. Retrieved from https://docplayer.net/12222261-Social-justice-and-philosophies-of-adult-education-the-meaning-of-social-justice-in-philosophy-of-adult-education-theories.html

Lawless, Sh., & Guy, T. C. (2011). Transcending traditional social justice conceptualizations: adult educator activists enacting a fourth way. Paper presented at the 41st Annual SCUTREA Conference, 5-7 July. University of Lancaster.

Meernik, J., Golcevski, N., McKay, M., Feinberg, A., King, K., & Krastev R. (2016). Truth, Justice, and Education: Towards Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 16(3), 413–431.

Šliavaitė, K. (2018). Ar galimas neoliberalus socialinis teisingumas? Lietuvos mokyklų tinklo optimizavimo interpretacijos ir patirtys [Is neoliberal social justice possible? Interpretations and experiences of Lithuanian school network optimisation]. Socialinių tyrimų žurnalas Kultūra ir visuomenė, 9(2), 37-60. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.7220/2335-8777.9.2.2

Thyer, B. A. (2010). Social justice: a conservative perspective. Journal of Comparative Social Welfare, 26(2-3), 261-274.

Žalimienė, L., Lazutka, R., Skučienė, D., Aidukaitė, J., Kazakevičiūtė, J., Navickė, J., & Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė V. (2011). Socialinis teisingumas švietime: teorinė samprata ir praktinis vertinimas. Mokslo studija [Social justice in education: theoretical concept and practical evaluation, Science study]. Švietimo ir mokslo ministerija, Lietuvos socialinių tyrimų centras, Vilnius: Švietimo aprūpinimo centras.




How to Cite

Zubrickienė, I., & Anužienė, B. (2022). EXPERIENCES OF EXPRESSING SOCIAL JUSTICE IN NON-FORMAL ADULT EDUCATION. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 1, 877-890. https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2022vol1.6832