20 - 30-year-old employee the relationship between the forgiveness motives and the perceived stress indicators


  • Aija Dudkina Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy
  • Henrijs Jodis Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy




forgiveness, forgiveness motives, perceived stress


The purpose of this study is to explore the theory and real-life manifestation of the forgiveness motives among employees with high and low stress levels. The target group of 20- to 30-year olds has been selected for the study because this life-period is considered particularly important in a human's life. It is a time of self-actualisation, starting a family, seeking stability and emotional balance. Few attempts to analyse the psychology of forgiveness in the working environment have so far been attempted in Latvia. The study aims to establish whether there exists a statistically significant correlation between the forgiveness motives and the perceived level of stress. Study builds on "An Empirical Test of Forgiveness Motives „Effects on Employees” Health and Well - Being" (Cox, Bennett, Tripp, Aquino, 2012) which revealed five types of motives for forgiveness: apology, moral, religious, relationship, and lack of alternatives. The studywaslinguisticallyadapted questionnaire (Trainer Forgiveness scale (1991), modified by Susie S. Cox, Rebecca J. Bennett, Thomas M. Tripp, & Karl Aquino, 2012)"Forgiveness Motives"who to determine the forgiveness motives among the target group. To establish the stress levels, a shortened version of the perceived stress questionnaire was used. The findings of the study support those of the research (Cox et al., 2012). There does exist a statistically significant correlation between the moral scale and the perceived stress. People who forgive primarily for moral reasons experience less stress. Equally, people who forgive primarily due to lack of alternatives experience higher levels of stress.

Author Biography

  • Aija Dudkina, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy
    Dr. psych.


Aquino, K., Tripp, T.M., Bies, R.J. (2006). Getting even or moving on? Power,procedural justice, and types of offense as predictors of revenge, forgiveness, reconciliation, and avoidance in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 653-658.

Briedis V. (2012). Reakcijas uz stresu. Iegūts 2012. gada 7. maijā no http://www.arstipsihoterapeiti.lv/lv/reakcijas-uz-stresu.html

Bright, D. S., Fry, R. E., & Cooperrider, D. L. (2006). Forgiveness from the perspectives of three response modes: Begrudgement, pragmatism, and transcendence. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 3, 78 - 103.

Cohen, S., Hoberman, H. A. (1983). Positive events and social support as buffers of life-change stress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13, 99–125.

Cohen, S., Kamark, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measurement of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.

Cohen, S. & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived Stress in a Probability Sample of the United States. in Social Psychology of Health, ed. S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Sage, 1988). Full text here (pdf)

Cox, S., Bennett, R., Tripp, T., & Aquino, K. (2012). An Empirical Test of Forgiveness Motives „Effects on Employees” Health and Well - Being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2012, Vol. 17, No. 3, 330–340. Iegūts 2013. gada 20. janvārī no APAPsycNET datu bāzes.

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Dudkina, A. (2014). Piedošana sociāli psiholoģiskā skatījumā, nepublicēts materiāls, manuskripts nodots publicēšanai Zinātne redakcijā).

Eriksons, E.H.(1998). Identitāte: jaunība un krīze Rīga: Jumava.

Fehr, R., Gelfand, M. J., & Nag, M. (2010). The road to forgiveness: A theoretical and meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 894 - 914.

Györkös, C., Becker, J., Massoudi, K., de Bruin, G. P., & Rossier, J. (2012). The Impact of Personality and Culture on the Job Demands - ControlModel of Job Stress. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71 (1), 2012, 21–28. Iegūts 2012. gada 18. maijā no APAPsycNET datu bāzes.

Herrero, J. &Meneses, J. (2006). Short Web-based versions of the perceived stress (PSS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) Scales: a comparison to pencil and paper responses among Internet users. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(5), 830-846.

Markham, U. (1997). Kā tikt galā ar stresu? Rīga: Jumava.

Miķelsone, I., Latsone, L., Strods, G., Oļehnoviča, E. u.c. (2008). Karjeras attīstības atbalsts. Jelgava: Jelgavas tipogrāfija.

Nelson, M.K. (1992).A New Theory of Forgiveness. Purdue University. pp.312.

North, J. (1987). Wrongdoing and forgiveness. Philosophy 62: pp.499-508.

Ozoliņa, Nucho, A., Vidnere, M. (1998). Stresa menedžments: pārvarēšana un profilakse. Rīga: AGB..

Perepjolkina, V. (2014). Daudzdimensionālas personības aptaujas izstrāde un validizācija Latvijas pieaugušo izlasē. (Promocijas darbs). Rīga, LU. (nepublicēts materiāls)

Lawler, J.J.(2004). The role of collective efficacy in the relations between transformational leadership and work outcomes..Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Volume 77, Issue 4, pp. 515–530.

Tezaurs. Skaidrojošā vārdnīca. Iegūts 2013. gada 9. septembrī no http://www.tezaurs.lv/sv/?w=piedo%C5%A1ana , http://www.tezaurs.lv/sv/?w=piedot

Trainer, M.F. (1989). Forgiveness: Intrinsic, expected, expedient, in the context of divorse. Unpublished doctoral disertation. Boston versity. Boston.

Tripp, T.M., Bies, R.J. (2009). “Righteous” anger and revenge in the workplace: The fantasies, the feuds, the forgiveness. In M.Potegal, G. Stemmler, & C. Spielberger (Eds.), Handbook of anger: Biological, psychological, and social processes. Amsterdam: Springer.

Tripp, T.M., Bies, R.J., Aquino, K. (2007). A vigilante model of justice: revenge, reconciliation, forgiveness, and avoidance. Social Justice Research, 20, 10-34

Toussaint, L., Webb, J. R. (2005). Theoretical and empirical connections between forgiveness, mental health, and well-being. In E. L. Worthington (Ed.,), Handbook of forgiveness; 349 - 362. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Türetgen, I. Ö., Berk, Ö. S., Basbug, G., Unsal, P. (2012). The Development of the Job Stressor Appraisal Scale as Part of the Job Stress Battery. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 2012; Vol. 28(2):147–153. Iegūts 2012. gada 18. maijā no APAPsycNET datu bāzes.

Jodis, H.(2013). 20-30 gadīgu darbinieku piedošanas motīvu saistība ar uztvertā stresa rādītājiem. Rīga, RPIVA (Nepublicēts materiāls).

Wade, S.H. (1989). The development of a scale to measure forgiveness. Unpublished doctoral disertation. Fuller Graduate school of psychology, Pasadene, CA.

Boйдыллo, Э. (1997). Учиться прощать. Минск: Полымя.

Гринберг, Дж.(2002).Управление стрессом. СПб: Питер.

Сердюк, B. (2004). Менеджмент стресса на рабочем месте. Кадры предприятия.