• Malephole Sefotho North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), School of Languages, Department of English
  • Erasmus Charamba University of the Witwatersrand
  • Genevieve Quintero University of the Philippines, Humanities Department, Mindanao



code-meshing, colonization, fluidity, language, multilingualism, translanguage


The myth of a pure form of language is so deep-rooted in many people that, even though they accept the existence of different languages, they cannot accept the reality that there is no language that is fully independent of other languages. People believe that there is language contamination across languages and most of the time it is their own language contaminated by others. This confirms the colonial principle of compartmentalization or distribution of languages. Even in the post-colonial era, language isolation remains a serious challenge, especially in bi/multilingual classroom settings, where learners are discouraged to translanguage or code-mesh languages. It is against this background that this paper examines adaptation of several vocabularies and concepts from other languages in developing a language, usually through merging of cultures or colonization. This study looks at examples in Southern Africa and the Philippines of existing fusion that has taken place between those languages and other surrounding languages. Therefore, this study argues that boundaries between languages are fluid - not fixed. The boundaries do not exist. They are therefore uncalled for because they destabilize the fluidity between languages, yet there is autonomous fusion between languages. We further argue that indigenization of languages can work well in translanguaged classrooms where learners are allowed to utilize indigenized versions of loan words to express ideas and concepts. This can encourage a more liberal use of language and self-expression in formal classroom settings.


Download data is not yet available.


Assessment, Curriculum and Technology Research Centre, Retrieved from

Baioud, G., & Khuanuud, C. (2022). Linguistic purism as resistance to colonization. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 26(3), 315-334.

Baklanova, E. (June 2019). The impact of Spanish and English hybrids on contemporary Tagalog. 11th International Austronesian and Papuan Languages and Linguistics Conference.

Butler, J., Rotberg, R. I., & Adams, J. (1978). The black homelands of South Africa: The political and economic development of Bophuthatswana and Kwa-Zulu (Vol. 396). University of California Press.

Canagarajah, S. (2015). Clarifying the relationship between translingual practice and L2 writing: Addressing learner identities. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(4), 415-440.

Charamba, E (2020). Translanguaging in a multilingual class: A study of the relation between students’ languages and epistemological access in science’, International Journal of Science Education 42(11), 1779–1798

Charamba, E. (2019) Translanguaging: Developing Scientific Scholarship in a Multilingual Classroom. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. DOI:10.1080/01434632.2019.162590d7

Chomsky, N. (2000). The Architecture of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching. The modern language journal, 94(1), 103-115.

Freire, P (2007). Pedagogy of the Heart. Continuum.

García, O. (2009). Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. In Social justice through multilingual education (pp. 140-158). Multilingual Matters.

García, O., & Wei, L. (2014). Language, bilingualism and education. In Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education (pp. 46-62). Palgrave Pivot, London.

Gevers, J. (2018). Translingualism revisited: Language difference and hybridity in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 40, 73-83.

Hawkins, J. (2017). Textual analysis. In M. Allen (Ed.), The sage encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. 1754-1756). SAGE Publications, Inc. DOI:

History and Background of Tagalog. Dynamic Language. Retrieved on January 18, 2022 from,more%20than%201%2C000%20years%20ago

Hoffer, B. L. (2002). Language borrowing and language diffusion: An overview. Intercultural communication studies, 11(4), 1-37. Retrieved from

Jelinek, F., Merialdo, B., Roukos, S., & Strauss, M. (1991). A dynamic language model for speech recognition. In Speech and Natural Language: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Pacific Grove, California, February 19-22, 1991.

Kim, S. J. (2017). A situated perspective on bilingual development: preschool Korean-English bilinguals’ utilization of two languages and Korean honorifics. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(1), 1-19.

Kiramba, L.K., & Smith, P.H., (2019). “Her sentence is correct, isn't it?” Regulative discourse in English medium classrooms, Teaching, and Teacher Education, 85(2), 105-114.

Kleyn, T., & García, O. (2019). Translanguaging as an act of transformation: Restructuring teaching and learning for emergent bilingual students. The Handbook of TESOL in K‐12, 69-82.

Landsberg E, Krüger D & Swart E (eds.) (2011). Addressing barriers to learning: A South African perspective (2nd ed). Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik.

Llamzon, T. A., & Thorpe, J. P. (1972). Review of Jose Villa Panganiban’s Talahuluganang Pilipino-Ingles. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, 3(2), 130-139.

Lovesey, O. (Ed.). (2012, December). Approaches to teaching the works of Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. Modern Language Association.

Lyons, J. (1981). Language and Linguistics: Cambridge University Press.

Madiba, M. (2014). Promoting Concept Literacy through Multilingual Glossaries: A Translanguaging Approach In C. Van der Walt and L. Hibbert: Multilingual Teaching and Learning in Higher Education in South Africa (pp.68- 87). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Makalela, L. (2015). Moving out of linguistic boxes: The effects of translanguaging strategies for multilingual classrooms. Language and education, 29(3), 200-217.

Makalela, L. (2017). Bilingualism in South Africa: Reconnecting with ubuntu translanguaging. Bilingual and multilingual education, 297-310.

Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (Eds.). (2007). Disinvesting and reconstituting languages (Vol. 62). Multilingual Matters.

Masanga, A. (2021). Influenced Culture in the Philippines: Colonization and occupations that have influenced modern Filipino culture. Retrieved from

Mazak, C. M., & Carroll, K. S. (Eds.). (2016). Translanguaging in higher education: Beyond monolingual ideologies. Multilingual Matters.

Mazak, C. M., & Herbas-Donoso, C. (2015). Translanguaging practices at a bilingual university: A case study of a science classroom. International journal of bilingual education and bilingualism, 18(6), 698-714.

Monteagudo, H, & Munian, F.N. (2019). Languaging and migration. The sociolinguistic and glottopolitical dynamics of the Galician community in Buenos Aires from the nineteenth century to the present day. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1 –11. DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2019.1621878

Mufwene, S. S. (2005). Language evolution: The population genetics way. In Schneider, E. (2007). The evolution of postcolonial Englishes: The dynamic model. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world, (pp.21-70).

Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(3), 281-307.

Panganiban, C. H. (1952). The Filipino National Language / La Langue Nationale des Philippines. Civilisations, 2(1), 55–60. Retrieved from

Paquet, R.G. & Levasseur, C. (2019) When bilingualism isn't enough: perspectives of new speakers of French on multilingualism in Montreal. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 40(5), 375-391

SAHO, (2019). The History of Separate Development in South Africa Collection

Schneider, E. W. (2003). The dynamics of New Englishes: From identity construction to dialect birth. Language, 79(2), 233-281.

Schneider, E. (2007). The evolution of postcolonial Englishes: The dynamic model. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world, 21-70.

Sefotho, M.P. (2019). Strategies for Reading Development among Sesotho-English Bilinguals: Efficacy of Translanguaging. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of the Witwatersrand. Johannesburg.

Sefotho, M. P., & Makalela, L. (2017). Translanguaging and orthographic harmonisation: A cross-lingual reading literacy in a Johannesburg school. Southern African linguistics and applied language studies, 35(1), 41-51.

Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language Contact: An Introduction. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

wa Thiong'o, N. (1993). Moving the Centre. East African Publishers, Nairobi.

wa Thiong’o, N. (1986). Decolonising the mind, East African Publishers, Nairobi

Wheeler, E. S. (2015). A framework for studying languages in contact: A prolegomenon to a theory. WORD, 61(1), 75-86.

Wei, L. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied linguistics, 39(1), 9-30.

Wentzel, P.J (1981). The relationship between Venda and Western Shona. Unpublished PhD Thesis, UNISA

Winkler, E. (2015). Understanding language: a basic course in linguistics. Bloomsbury Publishing.




How to Cite

Sefotho, M., Charamba, E., & Quintero, G. (2023). TRANSLINGUALISM ACROSS LANGUAGES: A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGES INTERACTION. Education. Innovation. Diversity., 1(6), 16-30.