• Clever Ndebele 1Walter Sisulu University, Directorate of Learning and Teaching Mthatha Campus (ZA) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4258-4812
  • Milton Gadisi University of Venda, Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning South Africa (ZA)




blind, braille, reasonable accommodation, disability, universal design


This study sought to examine barriers to learning for blind students at a rural based South African University. Premised on the qualitative design, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 5 blind students, two academic support staff and four lecturers who were identified through purposive sampling. Emerging themes from the data were identified through content analysis of the verbatim responses. The study found that reasonable accommodation was not provided for blind students in the lecture halls at the university under study. The study further found that, study materials and computers in the university library and mainstream computer laboratories were not adapted for blind students. Third, lecturers were not trained to teach blind students with some lecturers using PowerPoint presentations while teaching when blind students could not access the screens. The study recommends universal design for all learning facilities, thorough training for all staff teaching students with disabilities and the development of a disability policy in the university.

Supporting Agencies
South African National Research Foundation (NRF


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How to Cite

Ndebele, C., & Gadisi, M. (2022). EXAMINING INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF BLIND STUDENTS AT A RURAL BASED SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITY. Education. Innovation. Diversity., 2(5), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.17770/eid2022.2.6945